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Investigation into how concentration of hydrochloric acid affects the rate of reaction with marble chips.

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Introduction

Investigation into how concentration of hydrochloric acid affects the rate of reaction with marble chips Introduction Reactions occur when particles collide. This process is based on random particle movement. Therefore, the more particles you have in a space, the more likely they are to collide, making the reaction accelerate. The variables that are involved in our investigation are: 1. Temperature 2. Surface area 3. Catalysts 4. The concentration of the acid The temperature will be kept constant, at room temperature. This is because if the temperature is increased particles have more energy and move faster, resulting in more collisions. Therefore there would be a faster rate of reaction. The smaller the chips of marble the greater the surface area and more particles are exposed, these can collide leading to a faster rate of reaction. We will try and make sure the marble chips are all the same size but with the apparatus we are given it is impossible to get absolutely correct. The marble chips altogether will be weighed to 1gram. Here is a diagram to back up my theory of the surface area: Diagram 1 Catalysis would reduce the activation energy needed. ...read more.

Middle

If I find any anonymous results I will record them but then I will repeat the same test to see if I get a result which follows some sort of pattern. I will record my results accurately to 2 significant figures. Diagram This is a diagram of how I will set up my experiment Saucepan full of water Dispensary Tube Test tube Bung Conical flask 1 gram of Marble chips and 25cm� of Hydrochloric acid Fair Test To ensure my investigation a fair test, I must: * Check my measurements of the hydrochloric acid are all correct to 25cm� * Check my measurements of the marble chips are all 1gram * Make sure there is never any water in the test tube submerged under water * Start and stop the stopwatch on time each time I carry out an experiment Preliminary Test I did a preliminary test to get a rough idea of what results I may be missing when I draw a graph. We carried out the preliminary test to the plan and my results are as follows: Concentration of molar acid Units are measured in minutes for CO� to displace water in test tube 1st Test 2nd Test 3rd test 0.5m 1.0m 5.01/4.55 ...read more.

Conclusion

When I repeated experiments, the results I achieved showed little difference (little difference suggests accurate results). I am happy with the conclusion I got as I collected reliable evidence, which is sufficient enough to support my conclusion. I was very precise as I used weighing scales correct to 2 decimal places, which I think was an appropriate scale. I also used a measuring cylinder when measuring solutions. The distribution of all the results on my final graph (page 8) was spread out evenly. The points were all very close to the smooth curve which showed the best fit. This proves accuracy and therefore reliability. If I left the anomalous results then my conclusion would not be as accurate and my graph would not show an accurate curve. The experiment could have been affected to affect the results by temperature, inaccurate measurements and changing the size of different apparatus - i.e. changing the size of the test tube would have changed the amount of gas required to produce a bubble outside the tube. To improve my experiment I would use gas syringes rather than a test tube full of water. I could also use different molarities of the acid to extend my investigation. These two options would improve the accuracy and reliability of my conclusions. 9 1 ...read more.

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