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Investigation into how much heat is produced in a neutralisation reaction.

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Introduction

Investigation into how much heat is produced in a neutralisation reaction. Background Information. All neutralisation reactions give out more heat than is taken in. This type of reaction is called an exothermic reaction. The basic reaction will be H with OH ions. The H will always be the acid and the OH will always be the alkali. When; H+ + OH- H2O + Salt 1mol 1mol 1mol 1mol = 58 000 jmol of energy is given off (data book value) This is regardless of which acid and which alkali are used for the reaction, but the type of salt does depend on the type of acid and alkali used. The equation used to find the ?Hr is ?Hr = m x 4.20 x ?T m = mass of solution in beaker 4.2 = specific heat capacity of water ?T = Heat change measured on graph The ?T value will change according to the concentration of acid that is being used. Why does concentration of acid affect the ?Hr value? 1. The higher the concentration the more particles 2. The more particles the more chance of collision 3. ...read more.

Middle

10. The pipette is up to 25cm� so that as long as the bottom of the meniscus is on the line it will be accurate. 11. Wait until the timer has gone past 150 seconds and add the acid from the pipette. 12. Carry on taking readings of the temperature every 30 seconds until the temperature becomes constant. 13. Repeat the experiment with different concentrations of acid, making sure to use another burette for measuring the liquid. Concentration Table Concentration of acid Amount of Water Amount of acid 1 mole 0cm� 25cm� 0.8 mole 5cm� 20cm� 0.5 mole 12.5cm� 12.5cm� 0.2 mole 20cm� 5cm� 0.1 mole 22.5cm� 2.5cm� This table will help when trying to make different concentrations of acid. Results Tables. Time (seconds) Temperature when 1 mole of acid reacts with KOH (�C) Temperature when 0.8 mole of acid reacts with KOH (�C) Temperature when 0.5 mole of acid reacts with KOH (�C) Temperature when 0.2 mole of acid reacts with KOH (�C) Temperature when 0.1 mole of acid reacts with KOH (�C) 30 21 21.7 21 21.1 21.3 60 21 21.7 20.5 21.1 21.3 90 21 21.7 20.5 21.1 21.3 120 21 21.7 20.5 21.1 21.3 150 21 21.7 20.5 21.1 21.3 180 ...read more.

Conclusion

The amount of water I added may have been erroneous due to the fact that my burette was broken. Also, the temperature taking from the cup was difficult due to the awkwardness of the positioning of the thermometer. I don't believe that my accuracy was very good. One of the main things that affected my experiment was the fact that I did different experiments on different days. I believe that I could have made sure that my results were more accurate and reliable by making sure I i) Bent my head down to the same level as the thermometer reading to gain a reading. ii) Re-did my results for the different concentrations of solution. iii) Used a different burette when I realised that the first one was broken. iv) Try and repeat results for averages and to make results more liable. v) Do all the experiments on the same day. I did not have any anomalies in the singular results or Graphs. However, when looking at my overall results and graphs compared to each other, one can see that there are obvious differences on how the results fit with each other. I believe that the reason for this is as I said above - there were many inconsistencies between the different results that I took. Imthiar Khan Chemistry Coursework 1 ...read more.

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