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Investigation into how to measure the rate of a chemical reaction and how to change the rate of a reaction.

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Introduction

Chemistry Coursework Charlie Partridge Investigation into how to measure the rate of a chemical reaction and how to change the rate of a reaction My task is to produce a piece of coursework investigating rates of reaction, and the effect different changes have on them. The rate of reaction is the rate of the loss of a reactant or the rate of formation of a product during a chemical reaction. There are five factors which affect the rate of reaction according to the collision theory of reacting particles: temperature, concentration (of solution), pressure (in gases), surface area (of solid reactants) and catalysts. I have chosen to investigate the effect of temperature and concentration on a reaction. This is because it is the most practical to investigate. I am investigating the chemical reaction of two substances. The substances being; Sodium thiosulphate and Hydrochloric acid. As a word equation this is: NaSO + 2HCl ----------------> 2NaCl + HO + SO + S sodium + hydrochloric -------------> sodium + water + sulphur + sulphur thiosulphate acid chloride dioxide When these two solutions are mixed together, the mixture gradually goes cloudy, because sulphur is made. I am going to carry out the experiment of changing the temperature (whilst everything else remains constant). My starting temperature will be room temperature because it tends to be constant and it is more practical and will not need to be monitored. ...read more.

Middle

These must be measured in different, clean, measuring cylinders suitable for measuring 50cm and 10cm. After measuring them out carefully, you must pour each of the acids and sulphates into suitable instruments. In this case, sodium thiosulphate is placed in a conical flask and hydrochloric acid is placed in a boiling tube. Next, you must take the temperature of the room and record this. This will be around 20�c I would have thought. Make sure all the equipment is in place e.g. the X board is directly under an empty beaker. Whilst taking part in this experiment, you must always remember that contaminating any area with substances can disrupt the whole experiment and prove it inaccurate. Here is a diagram; Finally, add the sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid to the beaker and immediately start the stopwatch. You then need to mix the two substances together and watch carefully as the mixture gradually becomes cloudy and the X on the board is no longer visible. You then need to record your results; How long does it take for the mixture to become cloudy so that you cannot see the X board at room temperature? Answer: Equipment needed: 1 thermometer 1 beaker 1 measuring cylinder 1 boiling tube 1 tripod 1 gauze 1 heatproof mat 1 stopwatch 1 Bunsen burner X board 1 pair of tongs. Dependant variable I will measure the time taken for the cross to disappear, as it will show whether the rate of reaction has increased or decreased. ...read more.

Conclusion

This experiment was repeated three times and these are our results; 1st experiment - 52s 2nd experiment - 1.3m 3rd experiment - 53s Average: 52 seconds at 30�c The next experiment is to measure the reaction rate at a temperature of 40�c. You must heat both substances to a little over 40�c and place them both over the black cross and pour together to form a mixture. observations; 15s slight bubbling 25s " 30s going cloudy 44s invisible to the eye. This experiment was repeated three times and these are our results; 1st experiment - 44s 2nd experiment - 37s 3rd experiment - 41s Average: 41 seconds at 40�c. Our next experiment is to measure the reaction rate at a temperature of 50�c. You must heat both substances to a little over 50�c and place them both over the black cross and pour together to form a mixture. observations; 5s slight bubbling 10s bubbling 15s invisible to the eye. This experiment was repeated three times and these are our results; 1st experiment - 15s 2nd experiment - 16s 3rd experiment - 15s Average: 15 seconds at 50�c. Our fifth and final experiment is to measure the reaction rate at a temperature of 60�c. You must heat both substances to a little over 60�c and place them both over the black cross and pour together to form a mixture. observations; 2s bubbling 8s invisible to the eye. This experiment was repeated three times and these are our results; 1st experiment - 8s 2nd experiment - 11s 3rd experiment - 10s Average: 10 seconds at 60�c. ...read more.

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