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Investigation Into the Effect of Concentration On Rate of Reaction Between Marble Chips and Acid

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Introduction

Investigation into the Effect of Concentration on Rate of Reaction between Marble Chips and Acid Preliminary Work Before carrying out a set of experiments, I decided to do preliminary work to look at quantities and measurements, in order for my experiments to work smoothly and accurately. To do this, I tested both amounts of marble chips and amounts and concentration ranges of acid. I also experimented with different measuring cylinder sizes. I carried out a few simple experiments varying the above, and came up with the most sensible. We began by what seemed the most practical quantities. Firstly we looked at marble chips. We took 5g as a starting example. To accompany this we looked at what would be a sensible amount of liquid to accompany it and chose 50ml. To find the right measuring cylinder to use, we set up a mock experiment and began with a 25ml measuring cylinder. We timed experiments for both the strongest and weakest concentrations of acid and recorded the following results. 50ml acid-->0ml water = 26.80 seconds 10ml acid-->40ml water = 2 minutes, 53.77 seconds These were both practical results and so we were happy with the size of the measuring cylinder. Along with this, we also took note at how our quantities of acid and marble chips worked together and saw that they were both satisfactory. All other equipment and the set up of the apparatus were also fine and so we decided to move on to the proper experiments. Planning My Work For this experiment I will need to investigate how the rate of reaction of marble chips is effected by acid as well as considering other factors that my have an effect. Aim: To find a relationship between the concentration of acid and the rate of which a reaction takes place with marble chips. To begin the experiment, I need to look at the chemistry of marble chips (calcium carbonate) ...read more.

Middle

It is also important not to change apparatus or equipment and to keep the experiment exactly the same. If this is kept to then my experiment will be fair, hopefully giving me the most accurate results as possible. Safe Test: Keeping a safe test is also very important for the safety of me and other people around me. To ensure that my experiment is safe, I will carry out the following precautions. * Goggles should be warn to protect my eyes from acid or in case another accident occurred * I should act in a sensible and safe manner, carefully working with the equipment and being aware of any dangers. * The low concentration of acid I will use is a safety precaution to ensure that the acid is not dangerous. Obtaining My Evidence To obtain my evidence, I began by setting up my equipment and following the plan previously written. I measured hydrochloric acid (HCl) with water to produce the 50ml volume of the desired concentration, and added to this, 5g of small marble chips. I timed, in seconds, how long this took to produce a 45ml3 of gas by bubbling it through a delivery tube into an upturned mea-suring cylinder of water. The volume of which was 45ml. (All this is explained in more detailed in my plan). I included certain apparatus for accuracy. The reaction was timed accurately by using a stop clock measuring to 100th of a second. The scales measured the marble accurately by measuring exact to 0.01g. This accuracy of this was also improved by using small marble chips with more similar surface areas. The measuring cylinders used all measured to 0.1ml. From carrying out this process, I produced a set of results for 5 concentrations of acid, 2M, 1.6M, 1.2M, 0.8M and 0.4M. I then repeated these results for even more accuracy so that I will be able to produce an average. ...read more.

Conclusion

However, if that had happen part way through a set of results my results may have been slightly more irregular. To overcome this problem, results could have been taken all in one go. However, this was not practical in the spaces of time we were able to have. The other variable of surface area appeared to de successful. We already took precautions over this by using small marble chips instead of large, and so no problems arose. The accuracy of my results is as accurate as I think I would need. From my results I have produced graphs that show very definite and visible trends and patterns and no anomalous results and so the readings must have been correct. It may be possible to improve accuracy. I learnt from the strongest concentration, the 2M acid and the fastest reaction, that for short spaces of time the accuracy is not as exact. This could be solved by an alteration in equipment. If I were to do the experiment again, I would use a larger upturned measuring cylinder. The one I used held 45ml3 of solution. I found this took roughly 13 seconds to fill with gas, making it slightly inaccurate because it was a small space of time. However, if we increase the volume of the cylinder, it would take a longer time period. This may have improved accuracy. Other equipment all proved fine. I had no troubles with any other pieces of apparatus and would not alter them. To look into this investigation further of how concentration alters rate of reaction, I would like to look into concentration of solids in a reaction and concentrations of gases, similar to how we look at concentration of liquid and acid. It will be interesting to see if gases for instance have the same reaction patterns as liquids. I can see that my results mean that an increase of concentration of acid increases the rate. Would an increase of concentration of gas make any difference in the rate of reaction? This would help to add to an overall conclusion to the investigation. ...read more.

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