• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12
  13. 13
    13
  14. 14
    14

Investigation Into the Rates of Reaction.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

INVESTIGATION INTO THE RATES OF REACTION. INVESTIGATION INTO THE RATES OF REACTION. PLAN INTRODUCTION: To investigate the rate of reaction I have decided to use the concentration as a variable, I am going to use marble chips (calcium carbonate) and hydrochloric acid. I will alter the concentration of the hydrochloric acid each time, and I will measure the amount of carbon dioxide product given off. AIM: To find the rate of the reaction of hydrochloric acid reacting with marble chips. EQUIPMENT LIST: DIAGRAM: . Delivery tube . Inverted measuring cylinder . Trough . Bung . Conical flask . Stop clock . Measuring cylinder EQUATION: Calcium carbonate + Hydrochloric acid --> Calcium chloride + water + Carbon dioxide CaCO3+ 2HCL --> CaCL2 + H2O + CO2 How we will use the apparatus safely It is important we use the apparatus carefully and safely, ensuring there are no accidents. As we are using a concentrated acid, we must wear goggles and be extra careful. If any of the acid spills onto our hands, it should be washed off immediately and reported to the teacher. We should also wear an apron, ensuring the acid does not come into contact with our skin or clothes. What are we measuring? We will be measuring the amount of CO2 given off from the hydrochloric acid. The inverted measuring cylinder will measure this in (cm�). To keep this test fair; To keep this test fair we will keep the mass of the marble chip (calcium carbonate) the same (1.23g). We will also be keeping the temperature the same (room temp). The total volume of hydrochloric acid will also be kept the same (50 cm�). In order to ensure this test is kept even fairer, we will use the same equipment. Some delivery tubes vary in length, so we shall keep that the same. We also need to make sure the bung is placed in immediately on, when the reaction begins. ...read more.

Middle

I predict, a chemical reaction cannot happen unless particles in the reacting substances collide with each other Reaction rate=change in mass (concentration) of a substances Time taken Hydrochloric acid reacts with marble chips (calcium carbonate). One product is C02 gas. We will measure the rate of reaction by timing how long it takes to make certain amount of gas. We are going to alter one factor, to find out whether it affects the rate of reaction. This factor is the concentration of the hydrochloric acid. We will carry out this experiment as accurate and reliable as we possibly can. Therefore our measurements will have to be precise. We will carry out preliminary tests to find out how many parts of water will be used against acid. We must remember, the higher the concentration of acid, the more successful collisions between acid and calcium carbonate. Also another variable, the temperature will increase because there are more collisions, which means more heat is produced. We will get a higher rate than expected. PRELIMINARY RESULTS VOLUME OF ACID (Cm�) VOLUME OF WATER (Cm�) TOTAL VOLUME (Cm�) 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 From looking at the above table, you can see we are keeping the total volume the same 50(Cm�). In our preliminary testing, we worked out what concentrations to use. I.e., the amount of water to the amount of acid. We will work out the molars at the end using this equation; Vol of acid (cm�) Total volume of acid + water (cm�) x 2M=final molarity CONCENTRATION = 50(Cm�) acid & 0(Cm�) water TIME (secs) VOLUME OF GAS (Cm�) TEST 1 TEST 2 TEST 3 TEST 4 AVERAGE 0 30 60 90 120 150 210 240 270 300 0 8 16 25 34 44 53 0 8.5 16.5 26 33 42 51 0 7 14 24 35 43 52 0 8 15 24 34 42 52 0 8 15 25 34 43 52 CONCENTRATION = 30(Cm�) ...read more.

Conclusion

Also other things that I would like to investigate would be the experiment of time against amount of gas produced to show at which points the rate of reaction was at best and the curve/line of reaction. I would like to also investigate other factors, which affect the rate of a reaction like temperature and surface area to see how they affect the rate of a reaction. Some other areas in the experiment that I feel I could have improved on were factors like, controlling the stopwatch. There is lots of room for human error here. But the inaccuracies due to them were negligible because I paid close attention to these during the experiment. From analysing our results and graph, we can see they follow a certain trend. Also, all safety precautions were taken. We tried our very best to keep the experiment as fair as possible, by controlling certain variables. There are some possible causes for our anomalies. One being, when washing the conical flask, some water may have remained in the flask, resulting in slight dilution of the acid. The measuring cylinder wasn't long enough and so we couldn't take the last two measurements, as we had run out of space. The measurements on the inverted tube only went up to 50 cm�. To get the reaction going, we sometimes had to shake the flask. Our results and graph show, the higher the concentration the more volume of gas released. The more gas released tells us the faster the reaction. Therefore, the higher the concentration, the faster the rate of the reaction. By doing this experiment in a school laboratory our resources were limited. This includes, certain equipment, time (to carry out the practical) and space. We would sometimes get confused whether we had added the acid to the flask yet, (as acid can be mistaken for water). Overall our evidence wasn't limited to draw a firm conclusion. Our results and graph clearly show this trend and does help us draw a firm conclusion. SOURCES . My head . My dad's head .'Biology today'-book . BBC bitesize-website ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Patterns of Behaviour section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Patterns of Behaviour essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    In this project I am going to investigate rates of reaction of an indigestion ...

    3 star(s)

    These readings would have been either five or 10�C apart and would have ranged from approximately 10�C to 50�C. During the preliminary experiments I investigated this further (see page 8), and revised this original method. However, I did realise beforehand that there were several different ways I could get temperatures of 50�C.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    What affects the rate of a reaction? The reaction I will be investigating is ...

    3 star(s)

    I kept the concentration of acid at 1.0 M and changed the volume of HCl between 10 ml, 20 ml and, 30 ml.

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Reaction Rates Investigation

    3 star(s)

    - Stopwatch - Hydrochloric Acid (Of selected Concentrations 1,1.2,1.4,1.6,1.8M) - Water - Delivery Tube - Bung - Clamp and Clamp Stand *Optional 1. Collect the equipment as shown above. Clamp and Stand are optional if you cannot hold the 250ml Measuring Cylinder upright yourself.

  2. A-Level Investigation - Rates of Reaction – The Iodine Clock

    5 5 8 8 H2O2 10 10 10 10 15 20 10 20 H2SO4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 Starch 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Time (secs) 16 30 83 235 106 84 102 52 RESULTS: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Volume (ml)

  1. Chemistry Cwk Rates of reaction: Investigating One Factor Which Affects How Fast Calcium Carbonate ...

    50ml will be the control for the amount of nitric acid to use and so will 5g be for the calcium carbonate. If there is too much gas produced or not enough to get a good rate of reaction I can alter these factors to change the volume of the carbon dioxide.

  2. Investigate how concentration of hydrochloric acid (HCL) affects its reaction with calcium carbonate (CaCO3).

    This was because I wanted to get at least eight readings. If I used the time interval of 10 seconds as I did for all of the other experiments I would have had only seven readings. Having more readings made my experiment more accurate, which is why I wanted to have at least eight readings in the first place.

  1. To investigate the factors which affect the rate of reaction between marble chips and ...

    25 30 35 40 Secs 32 35 37 39 41 41 43 43 45 50 55 Secs 44 46 52 Altogether 55secs 1st experiment Average results Formula for working out: Average Rate of reaction == total volume of CO2 in cm3 ______________________________ Total time for reaction Size of chips Total volume of CO2 (g)

  2. An Investigation: Factors That Affect The Rate Of Reaction between Calcium carbonate and Hydrochloric ...

    reaction, and it will enable us to control the temperature as well so the results are accurate and reliable. In the preliminary for each experiment we repeated the process only once, we will change this amount of repeats to 5 times in the main experiments for both surface area and concentration.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work