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Investigation Into the Rates of Reaction.

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Introduction

INVESTIGATION INTO THE RATES OF REACTION. INVESTIGATION INTO THE RATES OF REACTION. PLAN INTRODUCTION: To investigate the rate of reaction I have decided to use the concentration as a variable, I am going to use marble chips (calcium carbonate) and hydrochloric acid. I will alter the concentration of the hydrochloric acid each time, and I will measure the amount of carbon dioxide product given off. AIM: To find the rate of the reaction of hydrochloric acid reacting with marble chips. EQUIPMENT LIST: DIAGRAM: . Delivery tube . Inverted measuring cylinder . Trough . Bung . Conical flask . Stop clock . Measuring cylinder EQUATION: Calcium carbonate + Hydrochloric acid --> Calcium chloride + water + Carbon dioxide CaCO3+ 2HCL --> CaCL2 + H2O + CO2 How we will use the apparatus safely It is important we use the apparatus carefully and safely, ensuring there are no accidents. As we are using a concentrated acid, we must wear goggles and be extra careful. If any of the acid spills onto our hands, it should be washed off immediately and reported to the teacher. We should also wear an apron, ensuring the acid does not come into contact with our skin or clothes. What are we measuring? We will be measuring the amount of CO2 given off from the hydrochloric acid. The inverted measuring cylinder will measure this in (cm�). To keep this test fair; To keep this test fair we will keep the mass of the marble chip (calcium carbonate) the same (1.23g). We will also be keeping the temperature the same (room temp). The total volume of hydrochloric acid will also be kept the same (50 cm�). In order to ensure this test is kept even fairer, we will use the same equipment. Some delivery tubes vary in length, so we shall keep that the same. We also need to make sure the bung is placed in immediately on, when the reaction begins. ...read more.

Middle

I predict, a chemical reaction cannot happen unless particles in the reacting substances collide with each other Reaction rate=change in mass (concentration) of a substances Time taken Hydrochloric acid reacts with marble chips (calcium carbonate). One product is C02 gas. We will measure the rate of reaction by timing how long it takes to make certain amount of gas. We are going to alter one factor, to find out whether it affects the rate of reaction. This factor is the concentration of the hydrochloric acid. We will carry out this experiment as accurate and reliable as we possibly can. Therefore our measurements will have to be precise. We will carry out preliminary tests to find out how many parts of water will be used against acid. We must remember, the higher the concentration of acid, the more successful collisions between acid and calcium carbonate. Also another variable, the temperature will increase because there are more collisions, which means more heat is produced. We will get a higher rate than expected. PRELIMINARY RESULTS VOLUME OF ACID (Cm�) VOLUME OF WATER (Cm�) TOTAL VOLUME (Cm�) 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 From looking at the above table, you can see we are keeping the total volume the same 50(Cm�). In our preliminary testing, we worked out what concentrations to use. I.e., the amount of water to the amount of acid. We will work out the molars at the end using this equation; Vol of acid (cm�) Total volume of acid + water (cm�) x 2M=final molarity CONCENTRATION = 50(Cm�) acid & 0(Cm�) water TIME (secs) VOLUME OF GAS (Cm�) TEST 1 TEST 2 TEST 3 TEST 4 AVERAGE 0 30 60 90 120 150 210 240 270 300 0 8 16 25 34 44 53 0 8.5 16.5 26 33 42 51 0 7 14 24 35 43 52 0 8 15 24 34 42 52 0 8 15 25 34 43 52 CONCENTRATION = 30(Cm�) ...read more.

Conclusion

Also other things that I would like to investigate would be the experiment of time against amount of gas produced to show at which points the rate of reaction was at best and the curve/line of reaction. I would like to also investigate other factors, which affect the rate of a reaction like temperature and surface area to see how they affect the rate of a reaction. Some other areas in the experiment that I feel I could have improved on were factors like, controlling the stopwatch. There is lots of room for human error here. But the inaccuracies due to them were negligible because I paid close attention to these during the experiment. From analysing our results and graph, we can see they follow a certain trend. Also, all safety precautions were taken. We tried our very best to keep the experiment as fair as possible, by controlling certain variables. There are some possible causes for our anomalies. One being, when washing the conical flask, some water may have remained in the flask, resulting in slight dilution of the acid. The measuring cylinder wasn't long enough and so we couldn't take the last two measurements, as we had run out of space. The measurements on the inverted tube only went up to 50 cm�. To get the reaction going, we sometimes had to shake the flask. Our results and graph show, the higher the concentration the more volume of gas released. The more gas released tells us the faster the reaction. Therefore, the higher the concentration, the faster the rate of the reaction. By doing this experiment in a school laboratory our resources were limited. This includes, certain equipment, time (to carry out the practical) and space. We would sometimes get confused whether we had added the acid to the flask yet, (as acid can be mistaken for water). Overall our evidence wasn't limited to draw a firm conclusion. Our results and graph clearly show this trend and does help us draw a firm conclusion. SOURCES . My head . My dad's head .'Biology today'-book . BBC bitesize-website ...read more.

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