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# Investigation into the U-Values of Different Materials.

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Introduction

Investigation into the U-Values of Different Materials Planning experimental procedures AIM: The aim of this investigation is to compare the U-values given off by conductors of different materials. The U-value for any specified heat conductor is the heat energy lost per second through the conductor per square metre when there is a temperature difference of 1�c between its surfaces. FAIR TEST: * I must have equal amounts of water in each container. - This ensures the same amount of water will be heated up. To do this I will need to measure each one accurately. * I must make sure each material covers the same surface of the metal container.- This ensures the 'temperature given off' is carried out fairly. * I must start measuring the temperature of each container at the same time. - This means the starting temperature will be the same so that each experiment begins fairly. * I must place the thermometer just outside the containers. - This ensures I am reading the temperature of what is being given off and NOT the outside temperature. EQUIPMENT: 1. Water 2. Conducting Materials : -Artificial fur -Foil (aluminium) -Cotton wool (with cello tape) -Carpet -Copper Calorimeter on its own 3. Copper Calorimeter X 4 4. Thermometer 5. Stop-clock 6. ...read more.

Middle

In addition, I will not use the voltage and amperage as I know it is not necessary in this experiment from the textbook. (Look at graph please) Obtaining evidence This experiment is about which different materials out of the previously mentioned indicators are the best and worst insulator (material that traps in heat). I will find this out by working out the U-values for each indicator. I will need to keep the same amount of water in each calorimeter. This ensures that the mass therefore the whole experiment will not be affected. I will need to place the thermometers in the same positions every time. This ensures I am reading the energy being lost and NOT the outside room temperature. DIAGRAM OF EXPERIMENT I have collected my results (see TABLE OF RESULTS please) from the above experiment and calculated the U-values using the following formulas. 1. Formula to calculate 'Energy Lost': 2. Formula to calculate 'Rate of Energy Lost': 3. Formula to calculate 'U-Value' U-Value = Table of Answers Energy Lost (J) Rate of Energy Lost (secs) U-Value Cotton 15726.942 17.47438 8.4 Carpet 17772.72 19.74746666 11.1 Copper 27354.7008 30.39412 18.5 Fur 17898.804 19.88756 7.6 Foil 25221.042 28.02338 21.4 *Lowest U-value highlighted in green *Highest U-value highlighted in red Analysing Evidence and Drawing Conclusions This line graph shows that the copper on its own had the heat inside reduce the most. ...read more.

Conclusion

As for the cotton wool, being a better insulator than the carpet could be due to the fact the carpet was not properly covered over the whole of the calorimeter. This in effect would mean heat energy could escape through the exposed part quicker. In addition to this, the cello tape on the cotton wool indicator could have trapped air bubbles. These air bubbles have trapped hot air, which would improve the insulation of the cotton wool indicator. OTHER EXPERIMENTS If I had enough time, I would find the specific heat capacity for each calorimeter. This would improve the accuracy of my results when using the formulas. Hina Moazzam 11:1 TABLE OF RESULTS Time (min) Cotton Carpet Copper Fur Foil 0 83 88 88 90 88 1 93 86.5 88.5 92 90 2 92 85.5 86 90.5 89 3 91 85 84.5 89.5 87.5 4 90 84 82.5 88.5 86 5 89.5 83.5 81 87 85 6 89 83 79.5 86.2 83.5 7 88 82 78.5 85.5 82.5 8 87.5 81.8 77 84.5 81.6 9 86.5 81 75.8 83.5 81.2 10 86 80.5 74.5 82.7 79.5 11 85 80 73 82 78.5 12 84.5 79.5 72 81 77.5 13 84 79 71 80.5 76.5 14 83 78.5 70 79.6 75.5 15 82.5 78 68.8 79 74.5 ...read more.

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