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Investigation into Varying Concentration of Hydrochloric Acid Effects its Rate Of Reaction with Calcium Carbonate

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Introduction

Investigation into Varying Concentration of Hydrochloric Acid Effects its Rate Of Reaction with Calcium Carbonate Introduction Hydrochloric acid reacts with Marble (calcium carbonate) to produce calcium chloride, water and carbon dioxide. We can measure the rate of this reaction by measuring how quickly the carbon dioxide is produced. Ca Co3 + 2Cl --> Ca Cl + H2O + Co2 Prediction In this investigation we are going to change the concentration of hydrochloric acid. By changing this factor we are going to find out how varying concentrations of hydrochloric acid effects its rate of reaction with calcium carbonate. The change in concentration will show us if the higher or the lower concentration of hydrochloric acid effects the rate of reaction. I predict that the higher the concentration then the quicker the reaction. This is because in a higher concentration of hydrochloric acid there are more acid particles (reactant particles) to collide with calcium carbonate particles (marble particles). This means more collisions occur causing the reaction to occur quicker and produce more carbon dioxide. Preliminary Work To get the best results from this investigation we first needed to carry out a preliminary experiment. See preliminary write up called Measuring the rate of reaction between marble chips and hydrochloric acid. For the preliminary work we measured out 3g of marble chips and used 50ml of hydrochloric acid. ...read more.

Middle

We chose to take readings every 30 seconds because this would give a good picture of the rate of the reaction and using molars 0.5, 1 and 1.5 the measuring cylinder was full by 6 minutes and this length of time gave us enough readings to get a good picture about rates of reaction using varying concentrations of hydrochloric acid. One the cylinder was full whether 6 minutes had past or not we stopped the test. This is to show that some reactions are faster than others and makes the test fair. We did repeat experiments to make the investigation more reliable and this would show any errors that had occurred and let us work out average results. We did this experiment for molars 0.5, 1 and 1.5 of hydrochloric acid. We tried to use the exact amounts of hydrochloric acid and marble chips each time to make the investigation as reliable as possible. Results Results for Molar 0.5 Time (minutes) Volume of Co2 (cm?) Repeat Volume of Co2 (cm?) Average Volume of Co2 0 0 0 0 1/2 0 5 2.5 1 3 7 5 1 1/2 5 10 7.5 2 10 22 16 2 1/2 24 30 27 3 37 40 38.5 3 1/2 46 51 48.5 4 60 58 59 4 1/2 70 65 67.5 5 80 77 78.5 5 1/2 88 85 86.5 6 100 95 97.5 Results for Molar 1 Time (minutes) ...read more.

Conclusion

If you don't compare the averages then the results support my conclusion and prediction. This method was quite good to show the change in rates of reaction with varying concentrations. But a few things can go wrong such as not starting the stop clock at the exact time and sometimes bubbles escaped. Also there could be a delay in the carbon dioxide coming through the delivery tube as the conical flask filled up. The variations in room temperature could have also affected the results. There could have been difficulty in reading the volume of carbon dioxide and this could lead to errors in results. The chips used where not uniform size and this may cause a change in results between tests. If there was lots of smaller marble chips then the surface area is increased overall, there is more surface area for the acid particles to collide with. This means that the reaction will take place quicker. This is also the reason we didn't use the powdered calcium carbonate because the reaction took place to fast because of surface area. To improve this investigation we could try to make sure we use the same size marble chips and use a different more accurate measuring cylinder to give precise results. We could also do more repeat experiments and used more concentrations of acid. I could extend this enquiry by using more concentrations of acid and use different types of acid to give a wider range of results. ...read more.

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