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Investigation into what factors can affect the rate of a chemical reaction.

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Introduction

An investigation into what factors can affect the rate of a chemical reaction. Section 1 Planning I have been asked it investigate what factors can influence the rate of a chemical reaction. I will be reacting magnesium and hydrochloric acid. To measure the rate of a reaction, I will time how long it will take the reaction to produce 5ml, 10ml, 15ml, and 20ml of hydrogen. There are a number of variables that can affect the rate of my experiment i.e. > Size of the magnesium, this is because there is more surface area: more magnesium is exposed to the hydrochloric acid and therefore more acid can attack the magnesium. > The concentration of the acid, this is because there are more acid molecules in a greater molar of acid and therefore more acid molecules can attack the magnesium atoms. > Catalysts, weakening bond, this will increase the rate of the reaction by lowering activation energy. (A catalyst will not be used in my experiment) > Temperature, this is because heat will give more energy to the reaction and therefore the particle will move around faster causing more collisions between the magnesium atoms and hydrochloric acid molecules. I have decided to investigate how the concentration of the acid can affect the rate of a reaction. ...read more.

Middle

1. Set up the apparatus as shown in the diagram. 2. Measure 30ml of hydrochloric acid using the measuring cylinder. 3. Pour the acid into the conical flask. 4. Measure 3cm of the magnesium ribbon using the ruler. 5. Drop the magnesium into the acid. 6. Quickly put cork into the conical flask. 7. Start stopwatch immediately. 8. Time how long it takes the syringe to fill 5ml, 19ml, 15ml, and 20ml. 9. Record the results in my table. 10. Empty conical flask and wash out. 11. Repeat steps 2 - 10 with a different concentration of acid. 12. Repeat step 2 - 11 six times. Section 2 Obtaining Evidence Below is a table showing the results from my experiment. I tried to make this experiment as accurate as possible. I repeated each different concentration of acid six times and then took and average to make the results more reliable. The results were recorded to the nearest second. Experiment number Concentration (molars) Time takes when hydrogen given off was (seconds) 5ml 10ml 15ml 20ml 1 0.25 49 133 243 333 2 0.25 74 155 247 424 3 0.25 68 180 302 432 4 0.25 55 154 295 364 5 0.25 59 149 274 385 6 0.25 64 175 264 355 1 0.5 24 63 76 81 2 0.5 16 53 76 95 ...read more.

Conclusion

I could improve my experiment by putting the stopper in more quickly; find another, more accurate way of measuring the magnesium' and we could control the room temperature. To extend my experiment I am going to investigate how the surface area can affect the speed of a reaction. I predict that the bigger the surface area, the faster the reaction will be. This is because there will be more magnesium being exposed to the hydrochloric acid. Therefore, more acid will react with the magnesium. Here is a systematic plan to carry out this experiment. 1. Set up the apparatus in the same way as the previous experiment. 2. Measure 30ml of hydrochloric acid using the measuring cylinder. 3. Pour the acid into the conical flask. 4. Measure 6cm of the magnesium ribbon using the ruler. 5. Drop the magnesium into the acid. 6. Quickly put cork into the conical flask. 7. Start stopwatch immediately. 8. Time how long it takes the syringe to fill 5ml, 19ml, 15ml, and 20ml. 9. Record the results in the table. 10. Empty conical flask and wash out. 11. Cut another piece of magnesium 6cm long. 12. Cut the piece in half. 13. Repeat steps 2 - 10. 14. Cut the magnesium into quarters. 15. Repeat steps 2 - 10. 16. Repeat step 2 -15 six times making the pieces smaller each time. Here is a table of my results: Chemistry Coursework 1/7 Amy Blaney ...read more.

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