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# Investigation Into Wires and resistance.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

## Plan

### Resistance

Resistance is an effect, which prohibits the free movement of electron through a material. It is caused by the electromagnetic and chemical properties of the material the electrons are trying to flow through. Resistance is calculated by the equation R=V/I where R is resistance V is the potential difference (voltage) and I is the current (or Ampage). This means that if you were to increase the Ampage then the resistance would decrease

The objective of this experiment is to find relationships between the length of 24swg Constantan wire and the resistance produced when you pass electricity through it.  The apparatus required will be:

∙A voltmeter

∙An ammeter

∙1 m of 24swg Constantan wire

∙3 1.5v power cells

∙A multi meter

∙Crocodile connectors

∙Connecting wires

∙A wire jockey

∙A 1m ruler

I will also use the computer program ‘Science investigations [Resistances of Wires] to gather accurate preliminary data.

Method:

Having the apparatus set up as pictured above (waszzzzzzzzoooooo), we will use the wire jockey to make contact with the Constantan wire between 0cm and 100ch at 10 cm intervals. With this connection we will note down both the current (amps) and potential difference (volts) with these we can work out the resistance (ohms) by using the formula R=V/I.

Middle

70

1.37

0.93

1.47

80

1.55

0.89

1.74

90

1.57

0.75

1.85

100

1.72

0.78

2.21

Multimeter Test1

 Length of constantan (cm) Potential difference (volts) Current (amps) Resistance (ohms) 10 0.2 1.2 0.166 20 0.4 1.15 0.348 30 0.6 1.05 0.57 40 0.75 1 0.75 50 0.9 0.96 0.9375 60 1 0.91 1.09 70 1.15 0.86 1.338 80 1.3 0.82 1.585 90 1.4 0.78 1.8 100 1.5 0.76 1.97

Multimeter repeat:

 Length of constantan (cm) Potential difference (volts) Current (amps) Resistance (ohms) 10 0.2 1.2 0.16 20 0.4 1.1 0.36 30 0.6 1 0.6 40 0.7 0.98 0.71 50 0.8 0.9 0.88 60 1 0.845 1.18 70 1.1 0.81 1.36 80 1.2 0.8 1.5 90 1.3 0.76 1.71 100 1.5 0.74 2.02

Average resistance over all four tests:

Conclusion

Also on my hand drawn graph there are 3 obvious anomalous results, which didn’t fall on the line of best fit. They are likely to have been caused by poorer measurement, kinks in the wire or a bad connection (more sources of error have already been stated in the plan). However, I think that the evidence is still sufficient to support the conclusion.

The way we set up and conducted the experiment was the standard however if I was to do repeat he investigation I would use much shorter circuit wires and use better connections to minimise circuit resistance. It might also be a good idea to use a rectifier instead of batteries so that draining power isn’t an issue. You could also extend the investigation by measuring other variables such as temperature and wire diameter.

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Electricity and Magnetism section.

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