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Investigation looking At the Speed of Reactions

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Introduction

Investigation looking At the Speed of Reactions. Introduction The aim of this experiment is to find out how a variable can affect the results from a scenario set up in scientific environment. The experiment is to see how a certain variable will affect the amount of Gas produced from a Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochloric Acid Reaction. The Science Calcium Carbonate is a generally white or colourless mineral that is translucent. When compressed or exposed to great heat the mineral binds together in small to large clumps forming calcium Carbonate Chips, however left in it's formed state it is powder, a chalk like substance. I could use either forms of the Calcium Carbonate for the experiment. Hydrochloric Acid, is a clear, colourless to slightly yellow liquid with a sharp, pungent and irritating odour. It is a strong highly corrosive acid, soluble in water and alcohol but insoluble in hydrocarbons. The reason I am using Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochloric Acid for my experiment is due to the reaction when they are put together. A fizzing reaction takes place letting loose Calcium Chloride, Carbon Dioxide and Water. Word Equation Calcium carbonate + Hydrochloric Acid ===> Calcium Chloride + Water + Carbon Dioxide Symbol Equation CaCO3 + 2 HCl ---> CaCl2 + H2O + CO2 Prediction My prediction is that if the concentration of the acid increases there will be an increase in output of Carbon Dioxide from the reaction for example the highest concentration produce the most gas in the given time. ...read more.

Middle

First 50cm3 is a good round number with which to dilute the acid from, replaced 10cm3 of acid each time with 10cm3 of water. Also 50cm3 is a good amount of solution that ensures a reaction will take place and provide noticeable and easily readable results. Equipment Gas Syringe Conical flask Marble chips (CaCO3) Acid (HCl) (2 Molar) Glass Pipete 50ml Measuring Tube Clock Clamp Pole Cork Rubber Tube Electric Scales Glass Beaker Method First, I prepared the apparatus above, I found that the apparatus is good enough to carry out the experiment and get reliable results. First, I will use the top man balance to weigh out 1.5g of CaCO3, which is in marble chip form. Make sure the apparatus is safe and then you will be able to measure out 50ml of acid. This is done using the glass pipette measuring out two quantities of 25ml and then poured into the conical flask. Also, after measuring the CaCO3 you would be able add that to the conical flask. To keep the experiment fair you need to always place the acid first then the Calcium Carbonate or the opposite, this must be done all the time. As you add both reactants to a conical flask, you must immediately place the cork onto the flask. There is also the syringe were the gas is collected and connected to a glass tube and the cork, the gas collected would be CO2. ...read more.

Conclusion

No anomalous results were found or incorporated into the experiment that can be clearly identified, also adding to the accuracy of the experiment. There were a couple of points for the experiment to be improved by, first that by adding the CaCO3 and quickly placing the cork on top will lose time and some of the immediate product is lost. Also that a normal person pressing the time is not the most accurate of techniques. This obviously increases the error percentage in the results making the result outcome slightly incorrect. One way to improve the experiment would be to use a cork with two holes fitted with valves. One to enter the acid and CaCO3 powder and one connected to the syringe for the product of the reactants to be let out. In my view, I find this a more reliable technique. In addition, from the graphs I concluded that after the reaction reaches a peak it slowly comes to a complete halt. This meant that the graph was accelerating at first and then the gradient changed for the curve to become towards a vertical line. Although not indicated on the above graph nor supported by any of the evidence presented in this Investigation I feel that this would be a valuable extension of the product to discover when and where this curving begins and to what extend it occurs. C H E M I S T R Y ALEX WOOD SCIENCE COURSEWORK - CHEMISTRY - INVESTIGATION INTO REACTIONS -1- ...read more.

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