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Investigation of Electrolysis of Copper (II) Sulphate Solution Using Copper Electrodes

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Introduction

Investigate how temperature affects the rate of reaction between Hydrochloric acid and Magnesium In this experiment, I will be investigating how changing the temperature of acid can affect the amount of gas produced in a reaction between Hydrochloric acid (HCl) and Magnesium (Mg). The equation for the reaction is: Magnesium(s) + Hydrochloric Acid(l) Magnesium Chloride(l) + Hydrogen(g) Mg(s) + 2HCl(l) MgCl2(l) + H2(g) For a chemical reaction to take place, some bonds in the reactants must be broken, and the particles must collide to gain enough energy to break these bonds. This minimum amount of energy is called the activation energy. If the activation energy is high only a small amount of particles will have enough energy to react so the reaction rate would be very small. However, if the activation energy is very low the number of particles with that amount of energy will be high so the reaction rate would be higher. An example of low activation energy would be in explosives, when they need only a small input of energy, say a change in temperature, to start their exceedingly exothermic reactions. For this experiment, I will use hydrochloric acid (HCl), which reacts with the magnesium (Mg) to form magnesium chloride (MgCl2) and hydrogen (H2). I will be heating the hydrochloric acid at 5 different temperatures, starting from 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60oC (20�C being room temperature), and collecting the hydrogen produced. By collecting the gas, I will determine a change in the reaction rate as the acid's temperature increases. In the solution, particles move at a range of speeds. To react, particles must collide with enough energy and in the correct orientation for bonds to be broken. ...read more.

Middle

I will then put the tube of the bung into the cylinder that is upside down, so that I can measure the gas given off as it travels up the tube, and into the cylinder. I will do the experiment as accurate as possible in each experiment to make it a fair test. I will do this by measuring exactly 25ml of Hydrochloric acid each test. I will also thoroughly rinse the flask after each experiment, and dry it after with a piece of paper towel on the end of a pencil so that no water will dilute the acid in the next experiment. The Magnesium will also be measured and cut accurately, so no test will have a larger amount of Magnesium to react with the acid. The Magnesium will also be used as whole pieces as splitting the 2cm pieces into two 1cm pieces will increase the surface area and change the results. I will use the same equipment and I will carry out my experiment around the same area of the room for each 20oC experiment, as this will reassure that the room temperature is around the same oC. Experiment: The temperatures I am going to use are 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60�C. I will use this range because I think that I will get some varied results. I have chosen to start at room temperature, which is 20�C, as this seems like a reasonable temperature to start on. For every experiment that is not 20�C, I started by heating up the Hydrochloric acid (HCl) to the temperature needed, by using a thermometer that was placed into the acid. ...read more.

Conclusion

One major factor that could have affected the results is that, the experiment was carried out in a series of lessons, on different days, and in different times of the day. This factor could really affect the room temperature experiment, as the temperature would change slightly every time. To overcome this problem, instead of starting the experiment on room temperature, I would start it at 30oC. By doing this, the difference in room temperature would not matter, and this would solve some anomalies in this area. By doing the experiment throughout different days, many variables could have changed and that would affect the results dramatically, variables such as the strength of acid and the purity and cleanliness of the magnesium. To overcome these problems for a greater accuracy, the same stock of Hydrochloric acid should be used every experiment, and the same ribbon of magnesium. The magnesium should be new, as substances on it could tamper with the results. I did the experiment as accurate as possible by measuring accurately and sensibly, and made sure that the same equipment was used throughout the experiments. When tipping the cylinder upside down, I made sure that no water escaped so there was no air in the measuring cylinder before the experiment. The experiment was frankly, quite boring but it helped me understand the rate of reaction more, and also particles and collisions. It helped me understand how so many factors could affect the rate of reaction, and if I were to investigate "rate of reactions" to more depth, I would try investigating how the other four major factors would affect it. These factors include the concentration of the acid, the surface area of the solid, or even adding a Catalyst. ...read more.

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