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Investigation of the Effect of Changing Concentration of Hydrochloric Acid On the Rate of the Reaction Between Marble Chips and Hydrochloric Acid.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF CHANGING CONCENTRATION OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID ON THE RATE OF THE REACTION BETWEEN MARBLE CHIPS AND HYDROCHLORIC ACID EMILY CLARK LVS MRS McCOURT COMPLETED ON 04/04/03 18 PAGES CONTENTS Page Contents 3 PLANNING - Method, Apparatus. 4 PLANNING - Diagram. 5 PLANNING - Safety, Variables, My Variables, Fair Test. 6 PLANNING - Fair Test Cont., Prediction. 7 PLANNING - Prediction Cont. 8 PLANNING - Prediction Cont., Another Method. 9 PLANNING - Another Method Diagram 10 PLANNING - Preliminary Experiment 11 OBTAINING EVIDENCE - Method Used, Results. 12 OBTAINING EVIDENCE - Results Cont. 13 ANALYSING EVIDENCE - Graph with line of best fit of repeat 1 14 ANALYSING EVIDENCE - Graph with line of best fit of repeat 2 15 ANALYSING EVIDENCE - Graph with line of best fit of averages 16 ANALYSING EVIDENCE - Graph with line of best fit that shows the relation ship between the concentration and the rate of reaction. 17 ANALYSING EVIDENCE - Simple Conclusion, Detailed Conclusion, Comparison to my prediction. 18 EVALUATING EVIDENCE - Comment on method, Comment upon accuracy, Comment on reliability of results, Improvements for this investigation, Extension for this Investigation, Bibliography. INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF CHANGING CONCENTRATION OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID ON THE RATE OF THE REACTION BETWEEN MARBLE CHIPS AND HYDROCHLORIC ACID PLANNING Method * Set up the apparatus as shown in the diagram. * Weigh out 10 lots of 10g of large marble chips. * Make up the following solutions: o 2x50ml of 0.25 mol/dm3 hydrochloric acid (HCL) o 2x50ml of 0.50 mol/dm3 hydrochloric acid (HCL) o 2x50ml of 1.00 mol/dm3 hydrochloric acid (HCL) ...read more.

Middle

means that there will be less time before 100cm3 of CO2 is produced (the CO2 will be produced more quickly). This graph shows that as the concentration get higher the rate of reaction increases because the time taken for a fixed amount of CO2 to be produced gets shorter. This means that the reaction has happened faster. From this I think that as the concentration becomes higher the more CO2 will be produced in a shorter time so I predict that my graph should look like the one below. The lines are all equal distances apart this is because each concentration is the same distance apart. Also the gradient of the 1.00 Mol/dm3 line should be halve of the gradient of the 2.00 Mol/dm3. This is because you have doubled the concentration so I think that you should double the gradient. Finally I predict that if you double the concentration, you double the number of collisions, so you double the number of successful collisions, so double the rate of reaction. Another Method * Gas syringes are not always available due to the high price so they could use this experiment as a substitute. * Displacement of water * Set up the apparatus as shown in the following diagram * On the boiling tube mark five points at equal distance from one another * To the conical flask add the marble chips and hydrochloric acid (HCL) as before * Place the bung in the flask * Start a stop watch * As the water is displaced the gas produced will seem to come down the boiling tube. ...read more.

Conclusion

Another limitation is that a human must do all the timing from the stopwatch and reading from the gas syringe, this means that there is quite a large margin for error. This is why I found the way that I took my readings to hamper the accuracy of this experiment. If the temperature of the acid had changed from when I did the first reading to the end i.e. from when I did the first experiment the room temperature did not change and, hopefully the acid would have been the same temperature Comment on Reliability of Results I tried as far as I could to get the most reliable results that I could but with the margin for human error to be taken into account they are not the most accurate results but this is nearly unavoidable. Improvements for this Investigation There are many improvements for this experiment, they are: * To use better, more accurate equipment. * To read the volume at a specific time rather than read the time at a specific volume. * Find a process that can make the measuring of the surface area better than using human sight. Extension for this Investigation. * Take a few more readings so that my graph that shows the relationship between the concentration and the rate of reaction has more points on it, at the moment there is a huge gap in the middle. * Take readings from all the size of chips, this is very tricky though because small chips in high concentration go very fast, far to fast for me to take readings from. ...read more.

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