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Investigation of the Effect of Changing Concentration on the Rate of Reaction Between Magnesium and Hydrochloric Acid.

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Introduction

Investigation of the Effect of Changing Concentration on the Rate of Reaction Between Magnesium and Hydrochloric Acid Apparatus * Hydrochloric acid * Magnesium ribbons * Gas syringe * Clamp and stand * 100cm3 flask * Water * Bung * Burette * Connecting tube * 800cm3 jug Method Set up the diagram shown above using the apparatus given. 50cm3 of HCL should be placed in the flask. It will be of 1mol/dm3 and will vary in concentration each time by diluting it with water to get concentrations of 0.2mol/dm3, 0.4mol/dm3, 0.6mol/dm3, 0.8mol/dm3 and 1mol/dm3. The results of the concentrations will give me a suitable graph. 8cm of mg ribbon will be placed in each concentration of HCL as this length will give me sufficient time to record accurate results, but not too much time that I'm waiting around for the experiment to end. I will record the amount of hydrogen given off every 10secs so I can record a significant change in volume on each recording. Also for each reaction the flask will be placed in a jar full of cold tap water to act as a water bath to keep the temperature constant, as the experiment is exothermic. And to make the results reliable I will repeat each reaction twice, thrice if necessary. Concentration Table Concentration (mol/dm3) Volume of HCL (cm3) Volume of water (cm3) 1.0 50 0 0.8 40 10 0.6 30 20 0.4 20 30 0.2 10 40 Reasons for Method I have worked out that 0.1g of mg will give me 100cm3 of hydrogen. ...read more.

Middle

4 15.5 34 64 84 60 4.5 18 39.5 73 84 70 5 20.5 45 77 84 80 5.5 23.5 49.5 78 84 90 6 25.5 55 80 84 100 6.5 28.5 59.5 82 84 110 7 31 64 82 84 120 8 32.5 69 82 84 Results 2 Time (sec) 0.2 mol/dm3 0.4 mol/dm3 0.6 mol/dm3 0.8 mol/dm3 1.0 mol/dm3 10 2 4 10 16 30 20 2.5 6 14 31 52 30 3 9 20 43 73 40 4 12.5 25 55 82.5 50 5 14 31 64 85 60 5.5 17 37 75 85 70 6 20 42 78 85 80 6.5 23 46 80 85 90 7 26 52 83 85 100 7.5 28.5 57 84.5 85 110 8 31.5 61 84.5 85 120 9 32.5 65 85 85 Average Results Time (sec) 0.2 mol/dm3 0.4 mol/dm3 0.6 mol/dm3 0.8 mol/dm3 1.0 mol/dm3 10 2 5 10 16 28 20 2 7 15 30 51 30 3 12 21 42 72 40 4 13 26 54 82 50 5 15 33 64 85 60 5 18 38 74 85 70 6 20 44 78 85 80 6 23 48 79 85 90 7 26 56 82 85 100 7 29 58 83 85 110 8 31 63 83 85 120 9 33 67 84 85 Analysis The results I gained from each experiment were all very accurate and each set of results proved to be reliable by not being more than 10cm3 away from each other. ...read more.

Conclusion

The best thing that we could have done with the apparatus was to replace it all with new apparatus that had not been used so there was no chemical stains on it and everything that had to move did so very smoothly i.e. the flask and tubing and the syringe. Before we started this experiment we done another experiment to find out what length of mg to use for this experiment and we used a syringe in this experiment so we were able to find out hat by twisting the inner part of the syringe we could loosen it, this turned out to be very useful for this experiment as we were able to increase the accuracy of the results. If we were to do another experiment using another variable I would use temperature as the variable and keep the concentration and length of mg constant. In this experiment I know that the rate of reaction would increase with temperature due to collision theory 'the higher the temp the more energy the particles have to break the bonds and the particles will move faster and more particles will be of activation energy and the percentage of successful reactions will rise'. The problem with this experiment would be that it is very hard to keep the temp constant and a top of the range water bath would be needed. Rates of Reaction Rate of reaction =amount of gas/time (time used must be kept constant) 0.2mol/dm3 Rate=3/30 Rate=0.1 0.4mol/dm3 Rate=12/30 Rate=0.4 0.6mol/dm3 Rate=21/30 Rate=0.7 0.8mol/dm3 Rate=42/30 Rate=1.4 1.0mol/dm3 Rate=73/30 Rate=2.43 Gregory Yalaju 10P ...read more.

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