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Investigation of the factors affecting the rate of reaction between a metal and an acid.

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Introduction

Investigation of the factors affecting the rate of reaction between a metal and an acid This experiment is going to be carried out to relate the speed of a chemical reaction to the concentration of acid in which it takes place. BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE All acids contain hydrogen ions (H+) A strong acid readily loses the hydrogen ions to water. A weak acid does not readily lose hydrogen ions to water. The H+ becomes the H3 O+ ion in water; acids are not acidic unless there is water present to detach the H+. In hydrochloric acid: H+ Cl- + Water --> H3 O+ + Cl- It is the H3 O+ which reacts with the magnesium. The rate of reaction There are many factors which can be changed in order to change the rate of reaction between magnesium and acid. The particles have to collide more often. Increasing the concentration of reactants increases the rate of a reaction. Therefore, increasing the concentration of acid will increase the rate of reaction. This is because there are more particles in the same volume so more collisions are possible every second. Also, the energy of the particles affects the number of successful collisions. The faster the rate of reaction, the more energy in the particles, and therefore a greater success rate. ...read more.

Middle

Then when all the apparatus was ready and the stop clock was set at zero, I dropped a 2cm strip of magnesium into the diluted hydrochloric acid. As I did this, I started the timer. Every 20 seconds I would take a reading of the water level in the burette. Then I would repeat this two more times. After repeating, I would change the concentration of the acid and then do the same experiment, repeating twice. I would continue with the same method until I had experimented with 5 different concentrations. APPARATUS Clamp Stand Bent Glass tube Ice cream tub Stop clock Burette holder Pipette Burette Measuring cylinder Conical flask Hydrochloric acid Distilled water Tap water DIAGRAM PREDICTION I predict that the higher the concentration of hydrochloric acid to water, the faster the rate of reaction. Therefore, the reaction will be completed quicker in the high concentration experiments than in the lower concentration experiments. This is because the more hydrochloric acid, the more energetic and quickly the particles move. The quicker they move, the more they collide with each other. The more energetically they move, the more successful the collisions are - no particles will bounce off each other; they will react with each other. As I said in my background knowledge, the more concentrated an acid is, the more readily it loses hydrogen atoms to water. ...read more.

Conclusion

I will repeat this method two times more. After repeating I will average out all the results of the repeats and plot it in a table and a graph. I will repeat this method with 4 other concentrations. The concentrations will be 1M, 0.65M 0.5M, 0.4M and 0.35M. The concentration of the acid is measured in molars. The formula for working out the concentration of the acid in molars is: x x being the volume of water x + y and y being the volume of acid So the concentrations will be: 20cm3 hydrochloric acid and 20cm3 water --> 20 20 + 20 27cm3 hydrochloric acid and 13cm3 water --> 13 27 + 13 30cm3 hydrochloric acid and 10cm3 water--> 10 30 + 10 32cm3 water and 8cm3 hydrochloric acid --> 8 32 + 8 33cm3 hydrochloric acid and 7cm water3 --> 7 7 + 33 To keep results accurate: I will make sure that all the measurements are done carefully I will make sure that I read the measurements at exactly the correct time I will read the water level to the nearest 0.1cm3 I will make sure the surrounding temperature is kept constant throughout by not moving around the room, i.e. near a window and then to shade. I will make sure that when I rinse the conical flask, it will have no extra acid/water in it from last time's experiment. ...read more.

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