• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Investigation of the factors affecting the rate of reaction between a metal and an acid.

Extracts from this document...


Investigation of the factors affecting the rate of reaction between a metal and an acid This experiment is going to be carried out to relate the speed of a chemical reaction to the concentration of acid in which it takes place. BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE All acids contain hydrogen ions (H+) A strong acid readily loses the hydrogen ions to water. A weak acid does not readily lose hydrogen ions to water. The H+ becomes the H3 O+ ion in water; acids are not acidic unless there is water present to detach the H+. In hydrochloric acid: H+ Cl- + Water --> H3 O+ + Cl- It is the H3 O+ which reacts with the magnesium. The rate of reaction There are many factors which can be changed in order to change the rate of reaction between magnesium and acid. The particles have to collide more often. Increasing the concentration of reactants increases the rate of a reaction. Therefore, increasing the concentration of acid will increase the rate of reaction. This is because there are more particles in the same volume so more collisions are possible every second. Also, the energy of the particles affects the number of successful collisions. The faster the rate of reaction, the more energy in the particles, and therefore a greater success rate. ...read more.


Then when all the apparatus was ready and the stop clock was set at zero, I dropped a 2cm strip of magnesium into the diluted hydrochloric acid. As I did this, I started the timer. Every 20 seconds I would take a reading of the water level in the burette. Then I would repeat this two more times. After repeating, I would change the concentration of the acid and then do the same experiment, repeating twice. I would continue with the same method until I had experimented with 5 different concentrations. APPARATUS Clamp Stand Bent Glass tube Ice cream tub Stop clock Burette holder Pipette Burette Measuring cylinder Conical flask Hydrochloric acid Distilled water Tap water DIAGRAM PREDICTION I predict that the higher the concentration of hydrochloric acid to water, the faster the rate of reaction. Therefore, the reaction will be completed quicker in the high concentration experiments than in the lower concentration experiments. This is because the more hydrochloric acid, the more energetic and quickly the particles move. The quicker they move, the more they collide with each other. The more energetically they move, the more successful the collisions are - no particles will bounce off each other; they will react with each other. As I said in my background knowledge, the more concentrated an acid is, the more readily it loses hydrogen atoms to water. ...read more.


I will repeat this method two times more. After repeating I will average out all the results of the repeats and plot it in a table and a graph. I will repeat this method with 4 other concentrations. The concentrations will be 1M, 0.65M 0.5M, 0.4M and 0.35M. The concentration of the acid is measured in molars. The formula for working out the concentration of the acid in molars is: x x being the volume of water x + y and y being the volume of acid So the concentrations will be: 20cm3 hydrochloric acid and 20cm3 water --> 20 20 + 20 27cm3 hydrochloric acid and 13cm3 water --> 13 27 + 13 30cm3 hydrochloric acid and 10cm3 water--> 10 30 + 10 32cm3 water and 8cm3 hydrochloric acid --> 8 32 + 8 33cm3 hydrochloric acid and 7cm water3 --> 7 7 + 33 To keep results accurate: I will make sure that all the measurements are done carefully I will make sure that I read the measurements at exactly the correct time I will read the water level to the nearest 0.1cm3 I will make sure the surrounding temperature is kept constant throughout by not moving around the room, i.e. near a window and then to shade. I will make sure that when I rinse the conical flask, it will have no extra acid/water in it from last time's experiment. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Aqueous Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Aqueous Chemistry essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    An investigation into the factors affecting the temperature rise of water heated electrically.

    4 star(s)

    to prevent the cup being knocked over and the heater burning out. Predictions I predict that when varying the mass of the water. As the mass of water rises the temperature of the water will be lower after the given time of 4 minutes.

  2. Investigation to show how the concentration of an acid effects the rate of its ...

    Weigh the piece magnesium ribbon on the scales. 4. Measure volume of acid/water needed, using a cylinder. (A burette could be used to measure more accurately) 5. Pour mixture of acid/water into conical flask. 6. Put magnesium ribbon in the mixture of acid/water, put rubber bung in and start the timer.

  1. To investigate the factors affecting neutralisation.

    This way I will not only know what the temperature change was (more accurately then by recording it myself) but I will also be able to see how long the whole experiment took with each individual acid because when temperature remains constant (this will be visible on the graph drawn

  2. To investigate the rate of reaction between different concentrations of hydrochloric acid with metal ...

    However, the experiment is not as accurate or precise as some of the other techniques I have discussed 2. There will be a lag for all the experiments, so it would not matter, you would just have to, try to leave the same lag for every experiment.

  1. See how different concentrations of Hydrochloric acid change the rate of reaction with a ...

    which does not necessarily mean that there has will be twice the amount of collisions per second as the reactions depend on the energy of the collision. I therefore conclude that: 1. The rate of reaction increase as the concentration of the acid increases 2.

  2. Investigating how the concentration of a the metal ion affects the hardness of water.

    Also, I predict that as concentration is doubled, so is the amount of soap solution needed to form a lather. The equation for the reaction between stearate and calcium is as follows: Calcium + Stearate Calcium Stearate Ca2+ + St- CaSt2 This equation shows that for every calcium ion, two stearate ions are needed for them to react.

  1. Neutralisation Investigation

    At the ratio of 20cm3 acid: 20cm3 alkali we get a large output of energy from the reactants. If there were more acid than alkali, we would expect to get the same output of energy from the reactants as a ratio of 20cm3 acid: 20cm3 alkali.

  2. Antacid Investigation.

    We shall only be doing this once because it is a preliminary experiment. Results. Burette Start Burette Finish (ml) Difference (ml) Tablet brand Indicator used 0ml 8.5 8.5 Settlers Bromophenol blue 0ml 7.5 7.5 Superdrug Bromophenol blue 11.5 ml 23 11.5 Rennie (pepper mint flavour)

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work