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Investigation of the rate of reaction between Magnesium and Hydrochloric acid

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Introduction

Investigation of the rate of reaction between Magnesium and Hydrochloric acid By Hashim Al-Hasani 11R Introduction Chemical reactions occur when reactant particles collide with each other, Collision Theory If particles collide with less energy than the activation energy, they will not react. The particles would just crash into each other. The more regularly particles collide, and the greater the number of collisions with right amount of energy, the faster the rate (speed) of reaction. In this investigation I will be investigating the rate of reaction between a metal and acid. The rate of reaction is affected by numerous factors; these factors are: * Temperature * Surface area * Concentration * Use of Catalyst Temperature Temperature affects the rate of reaction because heat affects the movement of the particles; the higher the temperature, the faster the movement of the particles, therefore the faster the reaction. Surface Area Surface Area affects the rate of reaction because the bigger the area for the particles to react, more collisions occur, meaning the rate of reaction is greater. Concentration Concentration affects the rate of reaction because an increase in concentration means more particles to react with each other - therefore increasing the successful collisions between the particles and resulting in a higher rate of reaction. Use of Catalyst A catalyst lowers the activation energy of the reaction, therefore speeding up the rate at which the reaction happens. Possible Methods to measure the rate of reaction There are many different methods in which the speed of a reaction can be measured. These are the 3 most common methods to measure the speed of a reaction: Name: Mass Loss Description: As the gas is released the total mass of the solution is measured on the balance. The quicker the reading on the balance drops, the faster the reaction. Advantages: 'Rate of reaction graphs' are easy to plot using the results from this method. ...read more.

Middle

Also on how I would control the factors in order to make the test fair. Factors which may affect my results: How they would affect the results: How I will control these factors to make the test fair: The amount of hydrochloric acid. If the amount of hydrochloric acid is above 50ml, the reaction would be quicker. If the amount of hydrochloric acid is less than 50ml, the reaction would be slower. I will use a measuring cylinder to accurately measure how much acid I will pour into the conical flask. I will try to keep the value as close to 50ml as possible. The mass of calcium carbonate If the mass of calcium carbonate is heavier than 0.5g, the reaction would be quicker and a larger volume of carbon dioxide gas would be produced as there would be more calcium carbonate particles available to collide with the acid particles. If the mass of calcium carbonate is lighter than 0.5g, the reaction would be slower as there would be a smaller volume of carbon dioxide gas produced as there would be fewer calcium carbonate particles available to collide with the acid particles. I will use a weighing scale that measures accurately to two decimal places so that I can make sure the strips used have a mass of 0.5g. The amount of hydrogen gas escaping from the flask through the gap between the rubber bung and the edge of the flask. The more hydrogen gas that escapes through this gap, the less reliable the results will be as it is very likely that the volume of gas entering the gas syringe is less than the true value. I will ensure that the conical flask is sealed as tightly as possible by the rubber bung, so that no gas can escape through the gap (if any.) Results Table These are the results I got from carrying out my actual experiment. ...read more.

Conclusion

This would help to make the test fair as there would be no water in the flask to dilute the acid. Additionally, I would improve the experiment by using a longer measuring duration than two minutes as the reactions never stopped, they had only slowed down. This is reflected on Graphs 1-5 - the curves of best fit were never flat and thus suggesting that the reaction never stopped, but in truth, the reaction would have stopped sooner or later. Confidence on the Conclusion Generally, I am quite confident with my conclusion. I attained a set of results which strongly suggested that the concentration of acid has an effect on the rate of the reaction. Although, as most of the graphs show, many of the range bars are a bit large, meaning that the results are not very reliable as there is a large scatter of data, perhaps this was because the rubber cork was not sealed as tightly for these experiments, or I took longer to place it back on to the top of the conical flask hence, causing some of the product gas to escape, justifying the reason why its results was so scattered. Throughout the experiment, I had obtained many outliers in my results, as shown by Tables 1-4. These may have occurred because of any of the following reasons: * On some repeats, I did not seal the rubber bung as quickly as I did on other repeats or I did not seal it as tightly, causing more hydrochloric acid to escape into the room and therefore making the reading in the gas syringe less than what it would have been. * Not all of the remaining hydrochloric acid from the previous repeat was washed out of the conical flask - making the rate of reaction for the next repeat faster Despite these outliers, the majority of the averages were close to or on the curve of best fit, so after eliminating outliers, the results were reliable on the whole. ...read more.

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This is a reasonably well written laboratory report. It uses the appropriate level of scientific terminology with spelling punctuation and grammar of a generally good quality. Good features and further improvements have been suggested throughout.

Marked by teacher Cornelia Bruce 17/04/2013

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