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Investigation of the reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate chips

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Introduction

Investigation of the reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate chips Balanced Equation of reaction: Calcium carbonate + Hydrochloric acid = Calcium chloride + Water + Carbon Dioxide CaCO3 + 2HCl = CaCl2 + H2O + CO2 Rate of reaction and what alters the rate of reactions Rate of a reaction is a measure of the speed at which a reaction takes place and is found out by: Rate= Change in amount/Time taken Rate occur only when particles: - Collide - With enough energy Different factors change the amount of collisions there are, the more collisions the rate of reaction is faster. The variables that change the rate of reaction are: - Surface area - Concentration - Temperature - Catalysts Surface area- When the surface of the substance being reacted (solid) has a large surface area for example powders the rate of reaction is high and the substance is reacted very quickly but if it has a low surface area for example a ball the rate of reaction is low and the substance takes a long time to react, this is because the acid have more solid to react with so there are more collisions causing a higher rate of reaction the more surface area there is. Concentration of solutions- When the solution (acid) that is reacting with a solid is highly concentrated the rate of reaction is high and the solution reacts with the solid very quickly but if the concentration of the solution is low the rate of reaction is low and the solid reacts slowly, this is because when the concentration of the acid is high then there is lots of particles in a certain area(cm3) so more collisions and the more collisions the higher the rate of reaction is. Temperature- When the solid is being reacted into the solution at a high temperature the rate of reaction is high and the solid dissolves quickly but if it is at a low temperature the rate of reaction is low and ...read more.

Middle

Concentration of acid Mass of calcium carbonate chip at start /g Mass of calcium carbonate chips after 3 minutes/g Any anomalous results (not counted in average)/g Average of mass of calcium carbonate chips lost /g 5.00 5.01 0% (All water) 5.00 5.00 0 5.00 5.00 25% (12.5 cm3 5.00 4.64 acid, 37.5 cm3 5.00 4.65 4.32 0.35 water[0.5 mol]) 5.00 4.67 50% (25 cm3 5.00 4.24 acid, 25 cm3 5.00 4.26 0.72 water[1 mol]) 5.00 4.33 75% (37.5 cm3 5.00 3.85 acid, 12.5 cm3 5.00 3.86 3.36 1.15 water[1.5 mol]) 5.00 3.84 5.00 3.51 100% (all acid) 5.00 3.52 1.48 [2 mol] 5.00 3.52 In my results table I have written 5.00 grams for my measurement of calcium carbonate chips before reaction as I only have half my measurements and then accidentally forgot to write the rest down. Average mass loss was found by adding my 3 closest results, so excluding anomalous results, they were then divided by 3 and rounded up to the closest whole number. e.g. for my 100% concentration I received 3.51, 3.52 and 3.52 as my results so I added these together giving 10.55 this was divided by 3 giving 3.5166667 and this was rounded up to the closest number that is 3.52. To then find mass loss the average mass loss was taken away from 5 e.g. 100% concentration 3.52 was taken away from 5 to give 1.48. I received 2 anomalous results in my experiment which I did not count in my average. For 25% I received 4.64, 4.65, 4.67 and 4.32 these results are close together except for 4.32 which is very wrong also for 75% I got 4.84, 4.85 ,4.86 and 3.36 these results are very close together except 3.36 which is completely wrong later in evaluation I will look why I received these anomalous results. Results table showing rate of reaction: Concentration Average of mass loss /g Rate of reaction/g/min (mass loss/3) 0% (0 mol) 0 0 25% (0.5 mol) 0.35 0.12 50% (1 mol) ...read more.

Conclusion

The measuring cylinder caused inaccuracy which could have been eliminated if a pipette or a burette could have been used. Surface area is very hard to measure but perhaps exact cylinders of carbonate chips could have been used or they could have been cut into squares where then the surface area could be easily measured and put into more exact groups. Temperature is very difficult to keep constant the only way to do this is to somehow heat the room to the same temperature each time but is very difficult to keep constant. Is there enough results The results I got from the range and method were enough to get a reliable line of best fit on a graph and does show a very clear relationship between amount of the variable and the rate of reaction and also shows a quantitative relationship. With more time I could have increased my range I choose the furthest extremes I could but in the middle I only had 25%, 50% and 75% so more concentration could have been achieved with more time, for example 33%, 20%, 80%, 60%, 66%, 40% could also be measured. Could other results be found or could the investigation be extended To find other results another method could be used for example how the change in concentration would do to the volume of gas produced as with slight adjustment to the original method this could be achieved. All the difference will be is to instead of leaving acid concentrated to react with calcium carbonate chips and then measuring the mass loss the reaction will be connected up to a gas syringe and after 3 minutes the amount of gas produced will be measured. The same method could be extended by using a different, stronger or weaker acid and the calcium carbonate chips could be replaced by other substances ones more or less reactive. Instead of a concentration made of 50cm3 you could use concentration using 100cm3 and see if the rate just doubles for each concentration. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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