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Investigation of the reaction between marble chips & dilute hydrochloric acid.

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Introduction

Chemistry Coursework By Mohammad Yousuf 10U Investigation of the reaction between marble chips & dilute hydrochloric acid. Calcium Carbonates which are marble chips react with hydrochloric acid to give out calcium chloride, water and carbon dioxide. Marble is calcium carbonate and thus behaves in the same Hydrochloric acid + calcium carbonate calcium chloride + carbon dioxide + water. CaCO3(s) + 2HCL(aq) CaCl2(aq)+H2O(l)+ CO2(g) Planning In this experiment I am investigating to find out how different composition of concentrated hydrochloric acid affects the rate of reaction by timing the release of carbon dioxide in the reaction. I predict the higher the concentration of hydrochloric acid, faster the reaction rate and more carbon dioxide will be produced as the time increases. This is due to the collision theory. In high concentrated acid the particles of the marble chip will move faster due to the more collisions between the particles of marble chips and the acid. The particles of the marble chip will break down by colliding with each other which will then release carbon dioxide which I have to collect to find the rate of reaction in my experiments. I also think that if I doubled the concentration of the acid the rate of the reaction will also be doubled. I think my prediction will happen because in a high concentration acid the particles will collide with lots of energy which will break down the marble chips. This will also increase the pressure which also speeds up the reaction, this happens because the particles will hit the side of the container harder than the low concentration acid. This is more known as the collision theory. Collision theory means that the chemical reaction can only occur between particles when they collide (hit each other). There is a minimum amount of energy which colliding particles need in order to react with each other. If the colliding particles have less than this minimum energy then they just bounce off each other and no reaction occurs. ...read more.

Middle

A catalyst is often used as a powder so it has a bigger surface area per gram. Catalyst works by providing a suitable surface for the reaction to occur. The reacting particle gather on the catalyst surface and collide more frequently with each other and more of the collision result in a reaction between particles because the catalyst can lower the activation energy for the reaction. Pressure affecting the rate of reaction Increasing the pressure where the reactant is a gas is similar to increasing the concentration of a reactant in a solution. The particles are closer in high pressure which makes the particles collide more frequently and have a fruitful collision. This makes the rate of reaction increase. Fair Test I was careful to make this a fair test by keeping all my variables (except the concentration of the acid) constant. I used the same mass number of marble chips that I put in different concentrations of acid. To make it a fair test I will have to keep the room temperature the same for every experiment. If the room temperature is high the rate of reaction will be fast, this is because the particles will have more energy to break down, the particles which will also speed up the reaction. If the temperature is cool or cold than the rate will be slow for the reaction. I have to keep the concentration of hydrochloric acid the same for every type of experiment because in a high concentration acid the rate will be faster than the weak concentration acid. I have to use the same moles of acid when I am testing a particular concentration. The particles will easily be broken down in a high concentration acid than in a low concentration acid. The pressure in the container is also an important factor. If the pressure is high in the container the rate will be fast because the particles of the marble chip will collide with the particle of hydrochloric harder and hit the side of the container than in a low pressure container. ...read more.

Conclusion

3.5 mole : 1150 / 140= 8.21 cm3/ sec My formula shows that 3.5 molar acid had the fastest rate of reaction compared to other molar acid. The result also shows that high concentrated acid are faster than low concentration acid. From my graph and the result I worked out form my formula, I came to a conclusion that as the time increases more carbon dioxide is released and high concentration of hydrochloric acid has a faster rate of reaction than low concentrated acid because they produce more carbon dioxide than low concentrated acid. The evidence that proves that my prediction is correct is shown above. This is because of the collision theory that I explained it in the planning section. High concentrated acid has more particles than low concentrated acid which increases the frequency of the particles of the reactants to collide each other. More collisions mean faster rate of reaction. This proves my prediction and hypothesis and it shows that collision theory works with this experiment. Evaluation The experiment went quite well. There were some anomalous results in my experiment which I carried out repeats to get accurate results. The reason for my anomalous results would be because I might have misread the readings or used a different concentration of acid. Another reason for my anomalous result is that I marble chips with different surface area. This had a huge effect on my investigation because it is an important factor in my experiment and the particles of the marble chips collide with acid more if the marble has a large surface area. I've could've also used a gas syringe to collect carbon dioxide to avoid anomalous results. Next time if I carry out my experiment again, I'll use powder marble chips which will have the same surface area and I'll take more accurate measures by using the gas syringe and make sure that I don't mix up the concentration of the acid. Mohammad Yousuf 10U Chemistry Coursework Mohammad Yousuf 1 Chemistry Coursework ...read more.

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