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Investigation on the Effect of Temperature on the Rate of Reaction between Sodium Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric Acid.

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Introduction

Investigation on the Effect of Temperature on the Rate of Reaction between Sodium Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric Acid Plan Aim To investigate the effect that changing the temperature of the reactants has on the rate of reaction between Sodium Thiosulphate (Na2S2O3) and Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) Method Apparatus * Conical flask * Beaker * Bunsen burner * Tripod * Stopwatch * Paper * Water-proof ink (Ball point pen) * Thermometer * Water (Hot and Cold) * Ice * 2M Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) * 0.15M Sodium Thiosulphate (Na2S2O3) * Measuring cylinders (5cm3 and 50cm3) * Diagram Step 1 (Heating and Cooling) Step 2 Fair Test In order to make this a fair test, I will keep all the key factors but one the same where possible: - Temperature - This will of course be my variable, therefore I will change this as described in the execution procedure. - Reactants - The molar concentration of the two reactants must be kept the same, as to make sure that they do not affect the rate of reaction. I will keep this the same by using the same batch for all my experiments. I will also use the same amount each time - Depth - The depth of the mixture will affect the visibility of the cross, therefore I will use the same conical flask for each experiment, to keep the depth constant - Cross - I will keep the same cross to make sure the density required is constant Preliminary Work I have seen this experiment before, with 50cm3 0.15 mol Sodium Thiosulphate and 5cm3 2 mol Hydrochloric Acid. ...read more.

Middle

The rate of reaction can be measured in arbitrary units of seconds-1. This would mean that as the rate increased, the time taken would decrease. Therefore, increasing the temperature would decrease the time. Prediction Based on the above theory, I predict that as the temperature increases, the rate of reaction will increase and the time taken will decrease. A graph made of the rate should therefore be exponential, as doubling would result in a graph of y = a(2x). I therefore predict a graph like this: Analysis Results I was only able to repeat each temperature twice, due to time constraints. I also chose not to average the results of the same temperatures, as a slight wavering in the temperature could have resulted in a relatively massive change in the time/rate. Also, by using the fact that the rate should double every ten degrees, I was able to make a theoretical set of results. I calibrated this according to my 25�C result, as it was the same both times and therefore the most reliable with concern to accuracy. From these I was thus able to get the predicted time, as the reciprocal of the rate. The results table as follows is this: Temperature Real Theoretical Time Rate Time Rate (�C) (sec) (sec-1) (sec) (sec-1) 10 62 0.016 56.6 0.018 10 59 0.017 56.6 0.018 15 38 0.026 40.0 0.025 15 42 0.024 40.0 0.025 20 25 0.040 28.3 0.035 20 24 0.042 28.3 0.035 25 20 0.050 20.0 0.050 25 20 0.050 20.0 0.050 30 18 ...read more.

Conclusion

Also, only the sodium thiosulphate was heated, and the hydrochloric acid was kept at room temperature. However, even thought there were the aforementioned discrepancies, I believe that the similarity of the real line to the theoretical line allow me to draw conclusions, as I have Was I to do the experiment again in ideal conditions, I would modify my method significantly. Instead of a beaker filled with hot or cold water, I would use much more exact methods of getting the liquids to a specified temperature, and maintaining it. This could be a water bath, however preferably it would be some sort of enclosed area with the entirety inside heated, and computer controlled based on negative feedback from the liquids themselves, including during their reaction. Also, instead of using a cross, I would prefer to use a more precise method, e.g. a laser and receiver, whereby a low power laser would be shot through the thiosulphate and the reaction would have been considered complete when the receiver received less than a specified amount of laser light. This coupled with an automated hydrochloric release system could be used to measure the temperature exactly, again being computer controlled. This would eliminate human error. Also, I would like to find other factors which affect the rate of reaction. Due to catalysts factor being discrete as opposed to being continuous like temperature or concentration, I would rather do concentration, similarly to how I had done the temperature. Keeping the concentration constant would have proven easier than to manage the temperature. ...read more.

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