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Investigation to compare the energy given out when alcohol's burn

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Charlie Cowley Planning an investigation 30/09/02 Investigation to compare the energy given out when alcohol's burn I am investigating how different types of alcohol's effect the amount of energy given off. The types of alcohol used will be; Alcohol Formulae * Methanol CH3 OH * Ethanol C2 H5 OH * Propanol C3 H7 OH * Butanol C4 H9 OH I am going to investigate the amount of energy given out by the creating of bonds by subtracting the amount of energy needed to break the bonds to the amount given out from the creating of bonds. Methanol; C H3 OH + O2 ? CO2 + 2H2O H ? H - C - O -H ? H C - H O - H O = C = O O = O H - H ( 412 ) ( 463 ) ( 743 x 2 ) ( 496 x 1.5 ) ( 463 ) Input : ( 3 x 412 ) + ( 463 ) + ( 360 ) + ( 496 x 1.5 ) = 2803 Output : ( 743 x 2 ) + ( 643 x 4 ) = 3338 Energy out 3338 - 2803 = 535 = 535 kJ Ethanol C2 H5 OH + 2O2 ? ...read more.

Middle

being lost and this will help the distance between the burner and calorimeter stay the same, convection will remain the same and heat loss into the calorimeter How will I get my Results To get my results I am going to light the burner and heat water in a copper calorimeter. I will be heating the water 10?, making sure of this by using a thermometer. I will then measure the amount of alcohol burnt using a balance straight before and after to get the most accurate results I can. Obtaining the evidence I used the following apparatus: Chemicals: * Methanol, * Ethanol, * Propanol, * Butanol, Apparatus: * Copper calorimeter * Fuel burners * Fuel burner lids * Thermometer * Balance * Clamp stand * Measuring cylinder This is how I did the experiment: I measured the temperature change (which was from a certain temperature to another certain temperature), and the amount of alcohol burnt off (by measuring the weight of the burner before and after and measure the different.), and the amount of water. I measured the temperature with a thermometer, the mass change with a balance and the water with a measuring cylinder. To make shore my results are reliable repeated the experiment a three times, compared it to my predicted results and looked at other people's results and compared them. ...read more.

Conclusion

This method could have been improved but not using classroom methods. To make the results as accurate as possible it would have been necessary to use a thermometer that measures to a degree of accuracy within 0.5(, and I would have to stop heating the water exactly on 30( so the change in water temp would have been the same. The results I obtained did make sense but they weren't as accurate as I would have liked, they were accurate enough to obtain and support a firm conclusion apart from the predictions do not make much sense as to being so far off the actual results. In experiment 1 there were unexpected results that made the results slightly inaccurate ethanol burnt using more energy than methanol. This was resulting in an unfair test, as the flame sizes were different and there was no protection against convection and draught. The only limitations were that it was impossible to do the experiment in great detail. To support my conclusion I have the evidence of the bond energies and knowledge of the fact that there are more bonds to break in butanol. To further support my conclusion I could have experimented with different alcohols. ...read more.

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