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Investigation to compare the water potential between potato chips and carrot chips.

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Introduction

Investigation to compare the water potential between potato chips and carrot chips Introduction For this investigation I will be investigating and comparing the water potential between carrot chips and potato chips. This Preliminary work which I did before this (Investigation to determine the effects on potato chips in different concentration of sucrose solution) will help me complete this with the minimal errors possible. I will develop my ideas further from what I did from the preliminary work and adapt it to help me complete this investigation. Aim The aim of this investigation is to carry out a suitable experiment, using preliminary work, to compare the water potential of potato chips and carrot chips as fair as possible. Background Information I already know that: The main thing is that osmosis takes place and because of this water moves down a water potential gradient. Water moves out of a cell if the water potential is lower outside the cell and if there is a high solute potential outside of the cell as shown in the diagram below: I also know that water moves from a high concentrated area of water molecules to a low concentrated area of water molecules until equilibrium is reached. When plant cells become full of water they become turgid and the cell wall is a means of stopping the cell from bursting. Also, plant cells with very little water becomes flacid, this may be because water moved from a high concentrated area (plant cells) into a low concentrated are (area surrounding plant). I know this information without researching but when I looked through the Biology 1, OCR, Cambridge book (pages 56, 57 and 58), I found out that: Water with solutes in has a water potential below zero (in the minus figures). A way to work out water potential is to use the formula: Water potential = solute potential + pressure potential. ...read more.

Middle

Water moves down a water potential gradient and tries to reach equilibrium, this is where there's a balance of water molecules on both sides of a partially permeable membrane, in this case inside the potato chip and outside the potato chip. Apparatus This is the list of apparatus I will need to carry out the investigation: * 1.00M sucrose * 2 Beakers - to hold sucrose solutions and water * Water * Cork borer (4mm) - cuts out accurate potato chips and carrot ships * Blade of some sort to cut potato chip to size * Ruler to measure length of potato chips - to get the same length potato chips * Scales - weigh the potato chips to 2.d.p for accuracy * Potato's - as many as required to make 18 2cm potato chips * Carrot's - as many as required to make 18 2cm carrot chips * Cutting tile * Syringe to get more accurate measurements * Measuring Cylinders to measure how much water and sucrose I need. * Labels - to put on test tubes so different concentrated solutions can be identified. Risk Assessment Safety is always an issue to be aware of so to make sure that accidents keep to a minimum I will try to keep close to where I am working. All coats bags and stools should be put onto the sides because there's the danger of tripping up. Also on the razor blade I will keep a piece of paper covering the sharp end to stop anybody from getting a cut. Wearing a lab coat is also a good idea as this will keep your clothes from being stained by the sucrose or getting wet. I don't think there is a need for safety goggles as there aren't any harmful chemicals being used thought there is the razor blade which could cut someone's eye but the chances of that happening is low so I would say it is optional to wear safety goggles. ...read more.

Conclusion

Evaluation During my experiment I tried to minimise errors as much as I could and by doing preliminary work I cut down on errors even more. Unfortunately errors still occurred during the investigation, some due to apparatus and some human errors. The errors that occurred were not having enough test tubes, measuring potato/carrot chips length. Errors that could have occurred without me knowing were probably when doing most of the measuring such as measuring solutions and also possibly when weighing the potato/carrot chips. Any of these errors could be due to a misreading or human error. The effect of most of these errors would or could have resulted in unreliable results and these are significant in that you wouldn't have to make much of an error to get unreliable results and results which don't fit a pattern. To most problems there's usually a solution and I these are the steps I will take in minimising more errors if I were to repeat this investigation again: * Apparatus (supply) - make sure that there's enough of something that is needed as I had only the use of six test tubes for putting solutions and 36 carrot/potato chips in. Also to use more accurate apparatus such as a bulb pipette and burette to get solutions that are more liable to be closer to the value that you want the concentration to be (such as 0.2M). * Apparatus (measuring length) - using a micrometer to measure the length of the potato/carrot chips and cut them to size, it is more reliable than a ruler (which I ended up using) * Repeat test - This would increase the reliability of my investigation, even thought I retrieved an adequate amount of results for my investigation, the more test you do the better the reliability. To finish off I think that the investigation was a success but with room for improvement, mainly to do with apparatus. ?? ?? ?? ?? Balwant Flora 12SU 05/05/2007 Investigation to compare the water potential between potato chips and carrot chips 1 ...read more.

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