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Investigation to discover the affect of varying concentrations on the rate of reaction of CaCo3.

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Introduction

Omar Khaliq 11B Science Miss.Cole Investigation to discover the affect of varying concentrations on the rate of reaction of CaCo3 Hypothesis: I predict that the greater the concentration of hydrochloric acid (HCL) is the faster the limestone chips shall dissolve in the solution. In a greater concentration of hydrochloric acid (HCL) there are more particles and therefore more collisions per second occur in, turn this results in an increase in the rate of reaction. As there are more particles for the reactant to react with. A for m of energy given off this reaction is heat. During the reaction the amount of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) allows us to relate how volatile the substance is. For instance the more Carbon Dioxide (CO2) bubble produced the more volatile the substance is as Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is produced from a reaction. I predict that as the concentration increases, the average speed of particles colliding increases. At higher concentration there are more particles allowing, there to be more collisions per second and this results in an increase in the rate of reaction. A reaction will only occur if the colliding particles possess more than a certain minimum amount of energy. This minimum energy for a reaction to occur is known as the activation energy (A.E). The activation energy enables chemical bonds to stretch and break the rearrangements of the atom, ions and electrons to occur as the reaction proceeds. From the Collision Theory it is stated that in a reaction between two gaseous substances A&B a molecule of A must collide with B for the ...read more.

Middle

If it were compared to the smaller chips the time would be less because of it having a smaller surface area for the reaction to take place. The Hydrochloric acid cannot be used again after the reaction otherwise the acid will be less strong to act on the limestone chips and some may have been evaporated due to heat from the chemical reaction. When I am reading the calibrated collecting tube for results I need to be accurate in the amount I have observed and recorded because it could affect my results. As I shall be varying the concentration of the Hydrochloric acid solution it will allow me to attain a set of varied results from which I may understand rates of reaction and therefore create a conclusion to my experiment. If any of the variables below are not kept constant it would mean it would that the experiment would be regarded as unfair. The experiments were al exposed to the same moderation of heat which was the room temperature the room temperature was 27 degrees centigrade. To keep the potential rate of reaction equal the limestone chips have all been weighed at 0.50 grams (2d.p.) and shall be suspended in 10 ml of Hydrochloric acid solution at varying molarities. The volume of the solution that the limestone chips are kept in must be fair. The must be 10 ml. I am also going to use the same balance to weigh my limestone chips. ...read more.

Conclusion

I recorded the rates of the varying concentrations and their effects. My prediction matched and concluded with my results, as you may verify by observing the data graphs. I have proved that greater concentrated the HCL concentration is the faster the limestone chips react and produce a larger quantity of gas in a shorter amount of time. I noticed that during the experiment the amount of gas it was producing would slow down, this is because the activation energy which it had been given at the start gave it a 'boost' and at this point it would have been the fastest, until it had worn off which would at approximately half way through the allotted time. In the graphs, I saw definite patterns; they all have a positive correlation which shows that they are following the same trend. Evaluation The experiment I think went very well and I managed to get all the information I needed which I am very pleased about. At first I was aiming to increase the concentration up until 2.00 molar but the allotted time we had for the experiment was not enough to complete the task. The rates of reaction between the two substances were quite accurate as we measure each molar twice allowing us to create an average and therefore more accurate result. An improvement is that the calibrated collecting tubes may have been calibrated using on a larger scale for example instead of whole readings such as 6,7 or 8 there should have been 0.5 measurements allowing us to read of the amount of gas produced more accurately instead of estimating whenever the gas was between numbers. 1 ...read more.

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