• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Investigation to find out the factors affecting heat of neutralisation, and then choosing one variable, ascertain its effect on heat of neutralisation.

Extracts from this document...


INVESTIGATION INTO THE FACTORS AFFECTING HEAT OF NEUTRALISATION PLANNING AIM: to find out the factors affecting heat of neutralisation, and then choosing one variable, ascertain its effect on heat of neutralisation. A neutralisation reaction is a reaction between an acid and a base in which the acidity or alkalinity of a substance is destroyed, ie, either removing H+ ions by reaction with a carbonate or metal base, or removing OH- ions by reaction with an acid. To get a perfectly neutral solution of pH7, the H+ and OH- ions must be in exactly equal amounts. The ionic equation for neutralisation is: H+ + OH- H2O Heat of neutralisation or enthalpy change of neutralisation is the amount of heat energy given out when one mole of hydrogen ions is neutralised by one mole of hydroxide ions. POSSIBLE INPUT VARIABLES: * Concentration of acid * Concentration of alkali * strength (pH) of acid * strength (pH) of alkali * volume of acid * volume of alkali * basicity of acid (the no of H+ ions that can be replaced to form a salt) I know that the concentration of the reagents affects the heat of neutralisation, however this is not as advanced an experiment, and would not give me much to investigate/analyse and so I shall not choose this variable. The basicity of the acid affects the heat of neutralisation too, however I shall not investigate this variable because I am told that sometimes the results for this can be unreliable. Also, as there are not many acids available to me, I may not be able to get a wide enough range of measurements to make my investigation worthwhile. The volume of the reagents also effects the heat of neutralisation, however I shall not choose this variable as again the investigation would not be so advanced, or give me as much to investigate/ analyse as my chosen variable, nor do I find it as interesting. My chosen investigation is that into how the strength (pH) ...read more.


The calculation that must be used is DH= MC , where M= mass, C= specific heat capacity, = change in temperature. * I also know form previous experiments that when using dilute solutions, one can take the specific heat capacity and density to be the same as water. The specific heat capacity for water is 4.2, and as the mass will equal the volume (true for water) this will be 60cm3 - (the combined acid and alkali volumes). * so MC = 60 * 4.2 * temp change Joules * To get my answer in KJ I must divide by 1000. * This will give me the total KJ of energy for my experiment, and I wish to know the KJmol-1 .To find this I must divide by the number of moles for one of the reagents. * To find the no. of moles of alkali: volume (dm3 ) * concentration = no. of moles. =0.03 * 2 = 0.06 so KJmol-1 = - (MC / 1000 / 0.06). (this is negative as the reaction is exothermic) METHOD 1. Set up apparatus as shown below (labelled appropriately): 2. Fill the two labelled beakers with the appropriate substances (working through in order of results table)- so firstly with HCl and NaOH. 3. Measure very carefully 30cm3 NaOH into the polystyrene cup using the measuring cylinder and pipette, both labelled "alkali". 4. Measure and record the initial temperature of the solution 5. Using the other measuring cylinder and pipette, both labelled "acid", measure 30cm 3 of HCl very accurately in the measuring cylinder. 6. Pour the acid into the cup to join the NaOH, and immediately push down the lid and stir gently. Make sure you only hold the cup at the very top. 7. Wait until the maximum temperature has been reached, and when it shows no signs of rising any further, record it. 8. ...read more.


However this occured by equal proportions in each experiment, and so although my results were not 100% reliable, they were very accurate relatively speaking. However there are some improvements I could make for if I ever conduct this experiment again: * Make sure I get very precise volumes as this is needed for accurate results. Perhaps I could be even more careful, using the pipette more skilfully * Perhaps I could repeat my experiments one more time to make sure that my readings are accurate as I will have more data to average, and compare. * I could use more advanced equipment to avoid heat loss such as a calorimiter. This is the most important area for improvement, as this is what caused my results to be slightly below those in the data book, resulting in slight inaccuracies. * Next time I could revert to my original method and use 2M chemicals, although my experiments did seem to be unaltered by the adjustment to 1M chemicals. Also there are a few ways in which I could extend my investigation: * Investigate some of the other variables listed in my plan, and see the effects they have on heat of neutralisation. * Take my current investigation further by investigating a wider range of weaker carboxylic acids, and seeing whether the pattern of lower heats of neutralisation with longer chain lengths continues. This would be very interesting and seems to me a very worthwhile extension * Do more research and book work to find out exactly why the carboxylic acids do get weaker with longer chain lengths. Even though my results may not have been exactly those in the data book, they were only slightly below, and all relative to one another (ie. they were lower by the same amounts proportionally). This indicates that it was the heat lost to the surroundings causing this inaccuracy, which was the same in each case, as the same equipment was being used in each case. At least this indicates that my experiment was a fair test. Altogether I think my results are relevant and noticeably >90% accurate/reliable. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Aqueous Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Aqueous Chemistry essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Investigate the effect of changing the concentration of sodium hydroxide (alkali) on the volume ...

    4 star(s)

    Concentration of alkali Rate of reaction could be affected Ensure that solution is properly prepared and correct concentration is used. Different concentration of alkali will be used in the experiment therefore; it must be ensured that all solutions must be prepared on the same day.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    The Effect of pH on the Strength of Keratin (hair protein).

    4 star(s)

    Key Variables: To produce reliable results there are certain variables that must be controlled in each experiment. The humidity, temperature and the hair width must all be kept constant. Temperature affects the dissociation of water, and therefore the pH of a neutral solution changes with temperature.

  1. To investigate the effect of concentration on the temperature rise, heat evolved and heat ...

    I will keep the volume of acid, alkali as constant at 25 cm3 (considering the direct mixing method). Hence the total mass of the neutral product should be 50 cm3. I will use the following formulae for calculation of my prediction: Moles (mol)

  2. The aim of this experiment is to answer the following question: What is the ...

    If the third and forth reading are the same then the rate of reaction going forward is the same as the rate of reaction going backwards so there is no net change in the amounts of reactants/products. Temperature (Celsius) Start reading (cm3)

  1. To investigate the factors that affect the amount energy produced in neutralisation reactions.

    This is because the strong acids and alkalis dissociate to a higher degree, they split up completely into their composite ions. In weak acids, the degree of ionisation is less, and as a result of this, the number of ions in the solution is less, which prevents complete neutralisation. 4.

  2. Mix an acid and an alkali and measure the temperature change.

    Observing and Measuring: This is my table of results to show the measurement of the normal temperature and when the acid and alkali are mixed together, which I have recorded below. Table 1 for Experiment 1 Acid (Cm3) Alkali (Cm3)

  1. An Experiment to determine What Factors Affect Neutralisation of 25cm Sodium Hydroxide

    reaction will occur at the same speed as the low concentrated reaction, but less acid will be needed: This means that the volume of acid needed to neutralise 20ml of 1M Sodium Hydroxide is inversely proportional to the concentration of the acid.

  2. Enthalpy change of neutralisation.

    Requirements: - 1 burette (25 ml) - 2 beakers - 3 calibrated flasks (500 ml) - 1 plastic bottle (1500 ml) - phenolphthalein - Procedure: We were provided with 2 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid (HCl), 2 mol dm-3 nitric acid (HNO3), 2 mol dm-3 potassium hydroxide (KOH), 2 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide (NaOH)

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work