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Investigation to find the relationship between particle size and rate of reaction

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Chemistry Coursework- Investigation to find the relationship between particle size and rate of reaction Aim- To see when experimenting with hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate, how the surface area of CaCO3 affect the rate of reaction. Scientific Knowledge- Reaction rates are explained by the collision theory. It simply depends on how often and how hard the reacting particles collide with each other. The more energy and the more often the particles collide, the faster the reaction rate. When particles are colliding original bonds are broken so those new bonds in the product molecules can be formed. The energy needed to break a mole of bonds is known as bond energy. In this experiment, the more surface area, that is when the solid reactant is broken down into smaller pieces, the rate of reaction increases. The speed increase happens because smaller particles of the same mass of solid have a greater surface area compared to larger pieces of solid. Therefore there is more chance that a reactant particle will hit the solid surface and react. The diagram below illustrate acid/marble chip reaction... A) Here, acid molecules are not colliding often or hard enough. B) Here, acid molecules have more area to work on, so there's more useful collisions, resulting in increase of reaction rate. ...read more.


Range of sizes of CaCO3... - powder - small - large 2) Put the required size of CaCO3 into conical flask. It must weigh 3 grams for each experiment so the results are reliable (use scales). 3) attach deliverey tube to conical flask. 4) fill a measuring cylinder completely full of water. Turn it up-side down into the large bowl of water carefully ensuring there are no bubbles. 5) Put the other end of the deliverey tube through to the measuring cylinder. 6) Measure 30 cm of HCl with a measuring cylinder. Read from the bottom of the reniscus. Must be the exact amount each time as surface area is the only variable we are changing. 7) Pour HCl carefully into the conical flask, making sure ther are no spills. Close the lid straight away. 8) Start the stopwatch at the same time. Once every 5 seconds, record the volume of gas produced. Try to get the timing right inorder to obtain accurate results. 9) Once reaction has finished, stop the stopwatch and turn the measuring cylinder right way up with care in order to get an accurate reading on the downward displacement of water.Read from the bottom of the reniscus. ...read more.


If it was poured quickly than the reaction rate was quicker, but with the powder it reacted too quickly and so some of the solution went over the edge. This could have affected the reliability of the results. - when we were reading the volume of gas produced, because the measuring cylinder was turned up-side down, we could have read the measurements wrong. This could have also made the results less reliable. - we have to obtain each result at a short time of 5 seconds, and because we are put under pressure, this could have also affected the way we read the measurements. To improve our experiment, or to gain more accurate and reliable results, I would be more careful with the issues mentioned above. I would also repeat each experiment a few more times. Then we could compare these with the results we already have and could be use to make a firmer conclusion. However, I did compare my results with those of my friend's. Here are their results... Powder... Small Chips... Large chips.. Their results are similar to mine as the collision theory applies to both of our's. From their results the powder reacted the fastest, then the small chips, than the large chips. Therefore our results match. For futher work, I would investigate how other variables affect the rate of reactions. These other variables are- temperature, concentration and catalyst. ...read more.

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