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# Investigation to see how the Concentration of Hydrochloric Acid affects the Rate of Reaction with Marble Chips.

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Introduction

Investigation to see how the Concentration of Hydrochloric Acid affects the Rate of Reaction with Marble Chips Aim The aim of this experiment is to see how the concentration of Hydrochloric acid will affect the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and marble chips. Equation for Reaction CaCO3 (s) + 2HCl CaCl2 (aq) + H2O (l) + CO2 Variables The factors which will affect the rate of the reaction are: * The surface area of the Marble Chips * The temperature of the solution (HCl) * The concentration of the solution (HCl) Concentration By increasing the concentration per unit volume of the acid you are placing more acid particles into the same area. This means that you are more likely to get a successful collision. Temperature By increasing the temperature you are giving kinetic energy to the particles. The more kinetic energy the particles have, the faster they will move. This will mean more frequent collisions. Due to the increased energy, a larger proportion of them will be effective. This will mean an increase in reactions. Surface Area Increasing the surface area of the solid will mean that there is a bigger area for particles to collide with. An increased surface area will therefore mean more chance of reaction. Therefore there will be an increase in the number of collisions, which also means a larger number of effective collisions. ...read more.

Middle

Remove the beaker and set it aside for later use. 5. Measure out 100 cm3 of acid of concentration 0.5 mol/dm3 using a measuring cylinder. 6. Now place the beaker containing marble chips back onto the balance and prepare to add the acid, tare the balance, fit the watch glass and start the clock. 7. Add the acid and as fast as possible add the watch glass. 8. Now immediately tare the balance and start the clock. 9. At 0 minutes the mass should read 0g, as no gas has been given off. 10. Every minute take and record a reading from the balance. 11. After five minutes stop the experiment. 12. Now repeat steps 1 to 11 with the same concentration for a repeat reading. 13. Next repeat steps 1 to 12 using the concentrations: 0.5 mol/dm3, 0.75 mol/dm3, 1 mol/dm3, 2 mol/dm3 and 2.5 mol/dm3. 14. Now repeat steps 1 to 13 and record results in an identical table labelled repeats. Precision and Errors With the balance it is perfectly easy to take readings to 3 decimal places. With the measuring cylinder make sure that you measure to at least an accuracy of one decimal place. Presentation of Results The table of results will have 3 columns. The first will be the concentration of the acid, the second will be the time the reaction has been going for and the third will be the mass of carbon dioxide produced. ...read more.

Conclusion

This would allow the gas to escape but not the solution. Also the surface area and mass of each individual marble chip may differ. If this is only a small difference that it should be ok, but if the differences are large, then this could severely affect the experiment. Also instead of a beaker I could have used a conical flask with cotton wool in the top. This would have stopped any spray from escaping while letting the gas out effectively. Anomalous Results On my graphs I have ringed the results that I believe to be anomalous. On my graph showing concentration against time the 3-minute result for the 0.75 mol/dm3 concentration is the only one on that graph that I believe to be anomalous. Although I have not ringed it, the 1-minute result for the 0.75 mol/dm3 concentration is slightly dubious but I do not believe that it is anomalous. These anomalies occurred because I misread the readings on the balance at that particular pointing time. Any other anomalies could have occurred because of any of the above sources of error. Further Work To continue this experiment I would like to do the same experiment while taking into account all the above sources of error and to use a wider range of acids. This would mean using much higher concentrations like 3.0, 4.0 5.0 and 6.0 mol/dm3. I would also like to able to leave it until the experiment actually finished naturally. This would give us a nicer and more complete set of results, without the anomalies. ...read more.

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