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Investigation To See If The Size Of Marble Chips Affects The Rate Of Reaction With Hydrochloric Acid

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Background theory Collision theory p68 Rates of reaction p67 Prediction-based on question Planning 'To determine a suitable range of concentrations, I carried out some preliminary work.' A step-by-step account of what I did take into account safety + diagrams. Variables Collect results Graph- cumulative frequency Calculate gradient Average rate over the 100 seconds Conclusion- say if prediction was correct and relate to theory- basically rewrite theory. Critically evaluate experiment- identify anomalous results **Doctor results** Improve experiments- do more of the same How would I develop that experiment-concentration and reaction rate-temp-catalyst? Neab website look up chemistry 'at1' Investigation To See If The Size Of Marble Chips Affects The Rate Of Reaction With Hydrochloric Acid Background Theory There are four factors that can determine the rate of a reaction. 1) The temperature. The more energy given to the particles, the faster they move and collide, hence the greater number of collisions. 2) The concentration. If the solution is more concentrated, then there are more particles to collide, which are closer to each other. In the case of a gas, increasing the pressure has the same effect. ...read more.

Middle

The size of the marble chips, were categorized into three groups: small, medium and large. The amount of carbon dioxide evolved was measured every 10 seconds for 100 seconds. So that we could calculate the average from our results, it was decided that the experiment should be conducted five times for reliability. Method We set up the apparatus as in the diagram below. The apparatus was set up in this arrangement so that we could measure the carbon dioxide evolved precisely. The concentrations of the reactants were kept the same as was the temperature, to ensure a fair test. We did not add any sort of catalyst to make sure that the rate of reaction was not altered by any other variable that the size of the marble chips, which was the only variable that was changed. As a safety precaution everyone wore goggles for the duration of the experiment. Mass Of Marble Chips (g) Time (s) Volume Of Carbon Dioxide Evolved (ml) Volume Of Carbon Dioxide Evolved (ml) Volume Of Carbon Dioxide Evolved (ml) Cumulative Frequency Average (ml) ...read more.

Conclusion

If I really wanted to get a good set of results I could gather the results from everyone else's investigation and compare them with mine providing that the apparatus and variable were the same. I think the investigation was accurate but would have been better if a more precise gas syringe with a smaller scale was available. Finally I would use a more advanced timing system. The investigation was not very reliable as we got a whole set of anomalous results. This was due to a fault with the gas syringe. If I were to do the investigation again I would make sure that the syringe was well lubricated every time I did the experiment to avoid repeating the same fault. I would also use a computer controlled timing system, as there was room for human error in this investigation. To develop the investigation further I would change the following variables to see what effect they have on the rate of reaction: 1) Change the temperature of the reactants 2) Change the concentration of the hydrochloric acid 3) Add a catalyst 4) Agitate the reactants to see what affect it had on the rate of reaction ?? ?? ?? ?? Jonathan Precious 10SMA Oakwood Technology Collage Practical Investigation ...read more.

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