• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9

Investiging the change in temperature which happens during the process of neutralisation

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Investiging the change in temperature which happens during the process of neutralisation Planning The Aim I intent to investigate the change in temperature which happens during the process of neutralisation. I shall use Hydrochloric acid as my acid, and Sodium Hydroxide as my alkali. Variables There are a number of factors, which I could investigate in this experiment, that would effect the temperature change of the solution; * The concentration of the Hydrochloric acid * The concentration of Sodium Hydroxide * The volume of acid and alkali Independent Variable The factor that I will change during this investigation shall be the concentration of the Hydrochloric acid used. I intend to use five different concentrations; 1. 0.1M 2. 0.5M 3. 1.0M 4. 1.5M 5. 2.0M Dependant Variable The factor that I shall measure throughout my experiment, will be the temperature change in the solution of alkali and acid. I intend to do this by 1. Measuring the initial temperature change in the solution of acid 2. Adding the alkali 3. Measuring the temperature after it levels off 4. Record the difference between the two in a table Controlled Variables There are a number of factors that must be kept the same throughout the experiment; * Concentration of Sodium Hydroxide * Volume of acid * ...read more.

Middle

The reducing agent itself is normally oxidised and the oxidising agent is usually reduced. Therefore in the above example, the Hydrochloric acid was the reducing agent and the Magnesium Oxide was the oxidising agent. If a chemical reaction produces heat in the surroundings, it is called an exothermic reaction. If, however, the reaction takes in heat, it is called an endothermic reaction. In these (endothermic) reactions, bonds are broken which takes in energy. In exothermic reactions, new bonds are made which produces energy. When fuel is burnt, bonds have to be broken, which takes in energy. New bonds are then formed, which gives out energy. If more energy is given out than taken in, the resultant reaction is exothermic. Exothermic and endothermic reactions can be shown as energy diagrams. Reaction rates can be measured in a number of ways. The simplest way is to just measure the time that it takes for the reaction to be completed i.e. Reaction Rate =1/Time Taken When we increase the concentration of the reactant particles, the reaction rate increases. If the concentration is increased, it means that there are no more reactant particles in the substance, which are needed for the reaction to successfully occur. ...read more.

Conclusion

Therefore when the concentration of the reactant is increased, the reaction rate increases and therefore there is a greater heat gain. After certain point, the heat change will remain the same. A higher concentration would continue to give the same result, in this case, 8 degrees centigrade I believe that my method was a good and efficient way of carrying out the experiment, it provided me with good convincing results. There was however one renegade result as it was just outside what I believe from my experiment to be the correct curve, the result was for 0.75M acid. This however, could have been because this specific concentration of acid, I had to prepare myself. I still believe however that my results are convincing as they form a clear cut curve, and that is the result of two sets of results which were both taken to minimise error. If I were to repeat the experiment I would look very carefully at the meniscus of the acids and alkalis in order to achieve more accurate measurements. I would also take more time to take care of cleaning beakers and test tubes. Conclusion In conclusion I can say that the concentration of acid is directly proportional to the temperature change of the solution, up to a certain point after which the temperature remains constant. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Aqueous Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Aqueous Chemistry essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Chemistry Investigation on neutralisation reaction.

    5 star(s)

    I plotted a graph of temperature against volume of acid added. At the neutralisation point, the temperature no longer increased as all the alkali OH- had neutralised the H+ ions of acid and formed neutral water. The temperature then began to fall as I diluted the mixture with cold acid.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Investigate the effect of changing the concentration of sodium hydroxide (alkali) on the volume ...

    4 star(s)

    The burette is one of the most important pieces of equipment used in volumetric analysis. A burette is used to deliver solution in precisely-measured, variable volumes. Burettes are used primarily for titration, to deliver one reactant until the precise end point of the reaction is reached.

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Enthalpy of Neutralisation.

    3 star(s)

    We can summarise these ideas as: Enthalpy change = heat of reaction. ?H = H2 - H1 Since the enthalpy change manifests itself as heat, the term 'heat of reaction' is often used in place of 'enthalpy of reaction'. It should be noted that ?H refers only to the energy change for the reacting materials.

  2. Investigate a neutralisation reaction between hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide.

    I drew a line of best fit, which was appropriate. From this I found out that my results show a strong relationship because some points on the graph were exactly on the line of best fit and some were just off.

  1. To investigate the effect of concentration on the temperature rise, heat evolved and heat ...

    react completely with one mole of alkali (OH- ions) to form one mole of neutral product. Heat of neutralization = heat evolved / moles Moles = concentration X volume Calculation Heat of neutralization of 1 M concentration = 1324.05 J / (1 M X 0.025 dm3) = 1324.05 J / 0.025 mol = -52,962 J or -52.962 KJ Heat

  2. Investigation to find out the factors affecting heat of neutralisation, and then choosing one ...

    * I shall measure out the acid and alkali to be used and react them in a polystyrene cup within a beaker. I know that polystyrene is an insulator, in preliminary work it helped to get more accurate heats of neutralisation by not letting too much heat escape.

  1. To investigate the rate of reaction between different concentrations of hydrochloric acid with metal ...

    I have controlled these factors, because any one of them might give me an anomalous result, because these factors determine the rate of reaction. Getting Results In the investigation, I shall have two techniques. My main one, is the gas syringe collection of carbon dioxide, (Technique 1)

  2. Investigating the Effects of Increasing Copper Sulphate Solution Concentrations on the Germination of Cress ...

    When I planned the experiment, I planned it so that I would be able to carry out the investigation to achieve the most accurate and statistically valid results, so I planned to do 24 repeats. But as the school could not provide 168 pots or pipette dishes, I could only do 8 repeats of the differing concentrations.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work