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invetigation:Principle of conservation of energy in terms pe and ke

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Introduction

physic investigationTitle : A study of Principle of Conservation of Energy in terms of Gravitational Potential Energy and Kinetic Energy.

Problem: How does the change of gravitational potential energy affects the kinetic energy?

Objective : To investigate the relationship between the gravitational potential energy and kinetic energy.

Variables :

Manipulated variable : The height at which trolley is placed from the reference point

Responding variable : The velocity of the trolley down the ramp

Constant variable : The mass of the trolley.

Hypothesis : The higher the height at which the trolley is placed from the reference point, the higher the velocity of the trolley down the ramp.

Operational definition : 1. Kinetic energy can be determined from the ½ mv², where the maximum velocity of the trolley is determined by ticker tape.

Apparatus and Materials : Ticker timer, ticker tape, trolley, ramp, 12V a.c. power supply, retort stand, retort clamp, bosshead. 

Introduction and Theory : According to the Law of Conservation of Energy, the energy in a system may take various form and may be interchanged among the components of the system, but there is never any net gain or net loss of energy by the system as a whole. An object of mass, m, at a height, h, above the ground has potential energy PE=mgh. If the object falls, its potential energy decreases.

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Middle


Discussions:From the graph of kinetic energy against gravitational potential energy above, it can be observed that as the height at which the trolley is placed from the reference point increases, the velocity of the trolley down the ramp increases. This indicates that as the gravitational potential energy increases, the kinetic energy also increases. The kinetic energy is linearly proportional to the gravitational potential energy. It correspond with the Law of Conservation of Energy which states that the energy in system may take various forms and may be interchanged among the components of the system, but there is never any net gain or net loss of energy by the system as a whole. By the Law of Conservation of Energy, the sum of the gravitational potential energy and the kinetic energy must remain the same. It follows that the sum of the changes in gravitational potential and kinetic energy must equal to zero.However, in this experiment, the total energy is not equal to zero. The gravitational potential energy and the kinetic energy is not the same in this experiment. This is due to some of the energy is lost or it can be said that some of the energy is transformed to another forms other than from gravitational potential energy to kinetic energy.

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Conclusion



Conclusion:In conclusion, the kinetic energy is increasing linearly to the gravitational potential energy. Hence, according to the Principle of Conservation of Energy, the sum of kinetic and potential energy at any point is conserved, provided there is no work done by other external forces acting on it.




References:1) Benn, M., George, G., 2000. Edexcel Physics for AS. London: Hodder Education.2) Akrill, T., Bennet, G., Millar, C. 2000. Practice in Physics. London: Hodder & Stoughton.3) Mee, C., Crundell, M., Arrold, B,. 2008.. International A/AS Level Physcs. London: Hodder Education.4) Cook, B., Marantz, S., 1998. Brief review in Physics. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. 5) Vetterlein, M., 2007. Trolley and falling mass [online]. Avaiable from:http://www.practicalphysics.org/go/Experiment_483.html [Accessed 11 March 2011]..

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