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Ionic and Covalent Bonding Ionic and covalent bonding is involved when the atoms of an element chemically combine to make their outer

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Introduction

Ionic and Covalent Bonding Ionic and covalent bonding is involved when the atoms of an element chemically combine to make their outer shells full and to make the atoms stable. The first type of bonding you can get is ionic bonding. Electrons are transferred from one atom to another to try and create full outer shells, this gain and loss of electrons on the atoms results in positive and negative ions. In these compounds you get electrostatic force, this is the force/attraction that occurs between the positive and negative ions that hold the compound together. This type of bonding takes place between metals and non-metals. The metals lose electrons and form cations, whereas the non-metals gain electrons and form anions. Each energy sub level is made up of orbitals. Every one can hold a different number of orbitals, these sub-levels are known as S, P, D and F. when the S and P block elements lose or gain electrons to become ions they fill their outer shells to get the electronic structure of a noble gas, however this structure doesn't apply to most of the positive ions formed from the transition metals. ...read more.

Middle

The attraction that holds the atoms together is the force between the electron and the nuclei in each of the atoms. Before the atoms are bonded, the single, non-bonded pairs of electrons are called lone pairs of electrons. When the atoms combine by means of covalent bonding they form molecules. Simple covalent compounds consist of many small molecules. The covalent bonds within the molecules are strong but the bondings between them to form the compounds are relatively weak, the force that occurs between them is called the intermolecular force. It takes very little energy to break these forces; therefore simple covalent compounds have very low melting points and generally appear as gases. You can also get multiple bonds; this is where atoms can share more than 2 electrons at once. E.g. share 4 to form a double covalent bond or 6 to form a triple covalent bond. You don't have to have each atom supplying electrons; this type of bonding is called dative covalent bonding. This is where both electrons come from the same atom. Different atoms have different abilities of attracting electrons to it. ...read more.

Conclusion

Between molecules you can sometimes get a force of attraction between the positive charge on one molecule and the negative charge on another. These are called Van de Waal forces and are the weakest intermolecular forces; they can therefore be very easily broken. The bigger the molecule and the bigger the points of contact between the molecules are, the larger the strength of the Wan de Waal forces. The bigger the forces are between the molecules the more energy is needed to overcome them, giving the substance and higher melting and boiling point. There is another type of bonding and this is called metallic bonding, this type of bonding is the force of attraction between the delocalised electrons and the positive centres. The atoms of the elements are packed so closely together that some of their electrons begin to wander among the nuclei rather than orbiting the nucleus of a single atom. As the charge on the positive centre and the number of mobile electrons per atom both increase and the size of the positive centre decreases the strength of the metallic bond increases. As they have free electrons they conduct electricity very well in solid and liquid states. ?? ?? ?? ?? Emma de Leij - Chemistry, Tb ...read more.

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