• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Iron ore: processes and History

Extracts from this document...


Iron ore: processes and History Intro An ore also is a mixture of one or more minerals. We distinguish ore from rock in that a valuable and/or useful material can be mined or extracted from the ore. This material often is a metal. Iron ore, is mined for its iron content. Mining companies sell the ore to manufacturers who extract the iron and use it in producing iron and steel products. The portion of the ore that is not iron is considered a waste or by-product. Even though it is considered a waste of the iron process, the by-product may be useful in some other process. Firstly, iron is quite magnetic. Ores can be located by magnetic sensing akin to backyard metal detectors, and possibly even harvested, unoxidised iron at least, with simple electromagnets. Underground mining is achieved by sinking shafts to the appropriate levels and then driving horizontal tunnels, called adits, to reach the ore. Underground mining is, however, relatively expensive and is generally limited to rich ores. Iron compounds are used as a colourant in glasses, which look to have a tremendous importance in lunar construction, manufacturing, and export. Process: Over-view Smelting is a way of getting metals from the rocks in which they exist in their natural form. These rocks are often known as ores. These ores are heated to a high temperature in an oven or a kiln, so that the metal in them melts and flows out of them. ...read more.


The specific nature of the activity carried out can be based on the shape of, quantity of, chemical analysis of and distribution of the slag. Sometimes slag will be the most visible sign of that process on the surface - large slag heaps sometimes have a different vegetation cover to that of the surrounding area, but the amount present can vary widely. Sometimes Medieval slag was robbed to be smelted down by improved Post-Medieval technologies, such as blast furnaces, or for road-metalling and as an addition to fields. Coal contains large amounts of Sulphur (S). This cannot be used to create cast iron as it will cause the metal to become impossible to work. Coke is coal that has been partially heated to drive off the Sulphur. This happened in coke ovens or just in the open, where the burning process could be specifically controlled by covers (sometimes completely) and wetting. Coke ovens were introduced in 1763AD. These ovens had a chamber filled with coal dust, a chimney and a door that sealed the chamber after staring the burning. The coke was formed by slow, but complete combustion. Removal of the coke was achieved by breaking the seal and using a small crane and scooped shovel. Coke ovens were built in rows, which could be served by waggonways. The gases produced could be used elsewhere, such as heating boilers for making steam. ...read more.


His son, Abraham Darby II, and his grandson, Abraham Darby III, eventually perfected his method. Because they kept the secret, the idea of smelting iron using coke did not become widespread until the second half of the 18th century. The Darby's method of producing iron could only be used for cast iron. The search was still on for a better and cheaper method of producing both wrought iron and steel. Until that time, steel had been very expensive to produce and its uses were limited. Charles Bage Charles Bage designed the Ditherington Flax Mill, in Shropshire. Ditherington was built in 1796, part of the empire being created by Leeds - based industrialist John Marshall and designed by his business partner Charles Bage. It took over a year to build and was a first in structural engineering; it was the first iron-framed building in the world. It's the mill's design that makes it such a groundbreaking building, because it was the first building in the world to be constructed around an iron frame. Charles Bage developed a perfectly valid method of designing cast iron beams on the basis of tests and Galileo's bending theory. (bd2) x (a constant depending on the material) Where b and d are breadth and depth of section This system was later taken up and employed to construct tall buildings all over the world. Essentially this structure represents the birth of the skyscraper, most notably adopted during the reconstruction of Chicago almost a century later. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Organic Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

3 star(s)

This is a factual account of the history of iron production. It is not written very clearly, with the author often writing incomplete sentences. It uses simple, easy to understand language and contains some equations.

Marked by teacher Brady Smith 17/06/2012

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Organic Chemistry essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    What an ester is, how it is made, examples of esters, animal testing issues ...

    4 star(s)

    The most common ester is 'Ethyl ethanoate' (or also known as ethyl acetate) the formula to make this ester is: ethanol (alcohol) + ethanoic acid --> ethyl ethanoate + water. The chemical formula is: C4H8O2 meaning there are 4 carbon atoms, 8 hydrogen atoms and 2 oxygen atoms.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Hydrocarbons and the importance of oil as a power source.

    3 star(s)

    PART 2 Amount of oil used in transportation is 16.8 billion barrels out of 27.3 billion barrels, which is around 61%. Due to technological advancements, many cars have come out with different prices attracting more and more people to buy it.

  1. Hydrocarbons As Fuels.

    and energy per unit mass (kilogram). Fuel Formula Relative molecular mass Energy released per mole (KJ mol-1 Energy released per kilogram (KJ Kg-1) Carbon C(s) 12 -393 -32750 Methane CH4(g) 16 -890 -55625 Octane C8H18(l) 114 -5512 -48350 Methanol CH3OH(l)

  2. Investigating the Combustion of Alcohols

    rise has to be one of a suitable rise and be kept the same throughout. I had to be aware of the scale of inaccuracy with particular temperature rises. Below, a table showing the percentage inaccuracy for 4 different percentage rises can be seen.

  1. Comparing the enthalpy changes of combustion of different alcohols.

    1.75g Starting temperature of water (�C) 23�C Final temperature of water (�C) 38�C As you can see these results are a lot more reliable than the previous set of results. The value obtained for methanol is similar to the other values obtained for that particular fuel.

  2. The Combustion of Alcohols and the factors affecting these reactions

    464 6 � O=O: 6 � 498 = 2988 Total: + 8559 kJ/mole Bonds Making (-)

  1. Comparing the Enthalpy Changes of Combustion of Different Alcohols

    I solved this particular problem from my preliminary work and adapted my method by wiping the soot from the base of the calorimeter after each run of the experiment.

  2. GCSE Chemistry Revision Notes - everything!

    A mixture is two or more substances that are not chemically combined. Their chemical properties are unchanged and they can be separated by physical methods. There are many different ways of separating mixtures. Some are listed here: 1. Filtering 2.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work