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Is Cloning Ethical?

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Introduction

Is Cloning Ethical? For the past few years the political and ethical argument for and against the process of cloning has been raging. So is cloning really unethical? Is it against human rights? Before we decide this we must first understand exactly what cloning is. Cloning can be done using a few different processes, which will be later mentioned. It is the creation of an embryo which is a genetically identical copy of another human (1). There are three main types of cloning. The first is known as Embryo Cloning. This is a technique, the same as the natural process of making identical twins or triplets, where cells are taken from a fertilised egg and encouraged to develop into twins or triplets with identical DNA (2). The second is known as Reproductive or Adult DNA Cloning. This method is used to produce an animal with identical DNA to an existing animal. DNA from an ovum is removed and is replaced by DNA from an adult animal cell. It is then implanted into the womb of a surrogate mother and develops into an animal. This kind of cloning is illegal in many countries as, based on studies performed on animals, it could cause genetic defects. It is considered by many to be unethical and dangerous, however Dr Severino Aninori claims to have used this procedure to initiate pregnancy (2) ...read more.

Middle

These embryos were only allowed to develop for a short amount of time-between the six cell and 100 cell stages of development, and ACT claim that their findings are important to the advancement of therapeutic cloning. Part of the process is parthenogenesis, where the egg is exposed to chemicals to stimulate development without sperm (5 and 6). There are many arguments ethical, biblical and political both for and against cloning. People who are for cloning argue that it gives infertile or homosexual couples the chance to have children of their own. They say that it would be cruel to ban something that could make these couples so happy. Another argument would be that couples who have lost a child could have a second chance at happiness (6). It could also be argued that it would be better for our species if we could guarantee good genes for all as genetic diseases would be wiped out. If some kind of global disaster were to occur then our species would be safe from extinction as any survivors could be cloned to save us. There would be no danger of humans becoming extinct (13). Cloning has come about from years of scientific investigation and it could be argued that it would be wrong to stand in the way of this progression (6) As Biological Science Review reported in 1999, cloning has several uses, all of which benefit mankind. ...read more.

Conclusion

A religious person may disagree with therapeutic cloning as it involved embryos (and in their eyes) lives being destroyed. However the secular perception would be that therapeutic cloning is more acceptable as this isn't creating a human, just tissue for transplant with the intent of making quality of life better (2). The law on cloning can sometimes seem unclear. In the U.K, while it is acceptable to perform any kind of cloning on animals, reproductive cloning (when a baby is born as a result) is illegal. Under strict guidelines therapeutic cloning is legal, however this is regularly under review due to many arguments about the ethics (8). In America it is expressed that federal money cannot fund human cloning research (4). As shown, there are many opinions of people around the word on what the law should be concerning the cloning of humans. After spending much time considering the information that I have researched, I am of the opinion that reproductive human cloning should be allowed, under very strict guidelines. Humans should only be allowed to create a new human life for set reasons, such as for an infertile couple (an even then I believe that other alternatives such as IVF should be attempted first). As for therapeutic cloning, I think this should be allowed to continue. If it was allowed to progress, scientists predict that it would put an end to having other peoples organs transplanted, therefore abolishing long waiting lists, making rejection of the new organ impossible, and ultimately saving lives. ...read more.

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Here's what a star student thought of this essay

4 star(s)

Response to the question

A good essay example. Introduction is good, and sets out the background science behind the essay before the main arguments are discussed. Main body of the text provides an in depth analysis, but could be improved to include a wider ...

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Response to the question

A good essay example. Introduction is good, and sets out the background science behind the essay before the main arguments are discussed. Main body of the text provides an in depth analysis, but could be improved to include a wider range of information that was more analytical. The conclusion is good, but could include more of an overall analysis of the main body of text that was discussed.

Level of analysis

References are not produced at the end of the text whilst they are quoted during the text which should be included. The level of analysis is to a detail higher than I would expect for GCSE level and evaluates a wide range of arguments for cloning as well as at first defining cloning before launching into the main body of the text which sets out the different arguments for cloning well with some pros and cons. There could be more room for improvement by examining other cloning methods, and more pros and cons behind the different cloning methods. The conclusion is good although it should weigh up the negatives as well as the positives behind the main body of text.

Quality of writing

Spelling, grammar and punctuation is to a very high level.


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Reviewed by skatealexia 16/03/2012

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