• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11

Is the preferred habitat of moss on the North side of a Yew Tree or the North side of an Oak Tree?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Richard Tandy A2 Biology - Ecology coursework Is the preferred habitat of moss on the North side of a Yew Tree or the North side of an Oak Tree? Plan of investigation For this project I aim to investigate if moss coverage has a preferred habitat on the North side of a Yew tree (a coniferous variety) or the North side of an Oak Tree (a deciduous variety). I will undertake this by means of fieldwork in a woodland area and the sampling and collection of data in the natural habitat of the forest in which I will visit. Appropriate Equipment to be used For the investigation I will need: * A compass * A quadrat (approximately 10cm � 10cm) * A meter ruler * A notepad to record results on to * A paper bag to protect notepad from the rain * A pen * String measured at approximately 1.5 meters long * Appropriate clothing such as waterproofs and walking boots On a separate A4 page is a drawing of the table I will use to record my results, showing the readings I am planning to take. The procedures selected and anticipated methods of collecting data. I will need to control various techniques and methods of working in order to standardise my investigation. I will standardise the actual sample taking. I will place the meter ruler against the trunk and place the quadrat at a height of one meter, with the bottom left hand corner of the quadrat touching the top right hand corner of the ruler. I will count the amount of squares placed over moss to derive a percentage. I will do this twice. Using the compass I will ensure the moss I am sampling is on the north face of the tree, as I specified in my aim. Using the string I measured, I will standardise the circumference of the trees, selecting trees only with a circumference of around 1.5 meters long. ...read more.

Middle

Analysing Evidence and Drawing Conclusions The main trend and outcomes of the results The main outcome of my investigation illustrated by the results table shows clearly there is much greater percentage moss coverage on the Oak trees than the Yew trees. Many Yew trees in fact have 0% coverage and the highest is 20%, compared with a highest of 100% on Oak. Therefore, not only does moss grow more on Oak trees, the outcome is that moss growth is exponential on Oak trees compared with Yew trees. Using the bar chart (graph 3) to calculate the average moss coverage, Yew trees have a mean of 2.93% moss coverage and Oak trees have a mean of 72.4%. So there is a significant difference between the groups of results. My bar graph (graph 1) and scatter graph (graph 2) further illustrate this, as they show that the moss coverage percentages are very high for the Oak trees (predominantly 70-100%) and very low for the Yew trees (mainly 0-4%). The scatter graph shows strong groupings, with the Oak tree readings concentrated towards the top end and the Yew tree readings are concentrated at the base of the graph. To case a point, if we look at trees number 9 on my bar graph, the Oak tree here has 100% moss coverage while the Yew tree has 1% moss coverage. If we look at trees number 15, the Oak tree has 98% moss coverage, while the Yew tree has 0% moss coverage. Using my Mann-Whitney U test calculation, I can safely reject my null hypothesis. To reject it my result had to be less than or equal to 64, my result came out as 4. Therefore, according to the table of critical values of U at the 5% level, I can be 95% certain I can reject the null hypothesis. Using the evidence supplied in my results, I can conclude significantly that the preferred habitat of moss is on the north side of an Oak tree rather than the north side of a Yew tree. ...read more.

Conclusion

to the 1 meter mark so moss may have been sampled at a height of over 1 meter where it will probably be less abundant. This could alter the numbers in the data as there is generally more moss on the trees lower down the trunk. It could have been enough to effect the general conclusion however it doubtful as 1 meter is still a long was up the trunk. A meter ruler could have been stood up on flat ground next to the tree, and another straight ruler or piece of wood placed flat on top to reach a height of 1 meter on the trunk. I could adopt a more precise technique with apparatus. For example, if I used a device such as an annometer to measure wind speed, I could connect it to a data logger and leave it for a week and not just one day to get averages which would be more accurate. For instance if I visited an area which had a large moss covering and took wind readings on what was a particularly windy day, I could presume that moss can grow in a strong prevailing wind, however, at any other time the area may be relatively sheltered from the wind. Taking averages over a period of time would not give me any misleading data. I could improve the accuracy of the results if I used other equipment and devices to survey the environment such as a hydrometer for example, which measures wind strength, and devices which measure light availability and moisture levels. Using this equipment would mean I could be very precise in selecting and sampling areas with similar physical conditions and may also enable me to link specific abiotic variables and their influence of the growth of moss. I believe my results are valid because they are a good reflection of the facts and information I collected on the preferred habitats of moss and how this relates to the features of Oak and Yew trees. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Living Things in their Environment section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Living Things in their Environment essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Research question - Is using dogs for work ethical?

    5 star(s)

    This can also lead to a conditioned dog; this is because a dog will believe that by pushing itself to race well and win the race- that is the way to receive love from its owner or boss. Also, if it loses the race it will associate the stimulus of

  2. Marked by a teacher

    An Investigation into a Woodlice's Preferred Choice of Environment.

    3 star(s)

    They are inserted directly in the middle of the four conditions. Once they are in I will commence timing. At every 30 seconds I will count the wood lice to see how many are in each condition, until ten minutes of timing has passed.

  1. Investigating the habitat of woodlice.

    After 20 minutes of waiting for the woodlice to settle, we counted the number of woodlice that was in each compartment and recorded it down in our results. We then took two more readings after every two minutes to see if they have changed their opinions on the preferable habitat.

  2. cellular respiration

    stopper with the graduated pipette and the syringe was firmly pressed into the test tube so that air could not get in or out via spaces in between the stopper Step 9: The

  1. Sand Dune Ecology and Conservation Course Work

    Evaluation From what I have seen the conservation measure was a success as there was a huge diversity amongst the plants in Winterton. Also I did not see a single sheep or cow in the site due to a wooden fence, which is also environmentally friendly.

  2. The comparison of bacterial content in a range of milks.

    However, after the 30hour point the whole milk lactic acid content vastly outruns that of the semi-skimmed-following the pattern of the raw milk-but with slightly lesser amounts of lactic acid. The whole milk shows the same stages of processes starting with the lag phases, and then progressing into the exponential (or log phase)

  1. My investigation took place in a small woodland close to the Heatree Activity Centre ...

    Lichens grow at a very slow rate, generally about 1cm a year for larger foliose lichens and 1mm a year for some of the crustose species. The growth rate will vary according to species, locality and season. Before the discovery of coal-tar dyes, lichens were of considerable economic importance for the commercial dying of wool.

  2. An investigation in the different species of plant life through bare sand and grassland ...

    stated that as the levels of marram decreased the levels of hawkweed would increase. I this is true I would expect the result of this statistical test to show a strong negative correlation. R = 1 - 6?di� N(N�-1) This is the formula that I have to use to work out my answer.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work