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Is the speed of sound affected when it travels threw different temperatures of air

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

G.BourneIs the speed of sound affected when it travels threw18/12/01

different temperatures of air

Background knowledge

The speed of propagation of sound in dry air at a temperature of 0° C is 331.6 m/sec. If the temperature is increased, the speed of sound increases; thus, at 20° C, the velocity of sound is 344 m/sec. Changes in pressure at controlled density have virtually no effect on the speed of sound. The velocity of sound in many other gases depends only on their density. If the molecules are heavy, they move less readily, and sound progresses through such a medium more slowly. Thus, sound travels slightly faster in moist air than in dry air, because moist air contains a greater number of lighter molecules. The velocity of sound in most gases depends also on one other factor, the specific heat, which affects the propagation of sound waves.

When a tuning fork is held over a tube, a standing wave pattern is formed in the tube. Under the right conditions constructive interference will occur at the opening to cause resonance. This is a very noticeable rise in the amplitude, or loudness, of the sound that is caused by the addition of two waves in phase with each other. One of the waves is traveling down the tube and the other is traveling back up the tube.                                                         In a closed end tube, like the ones used in this lab, there is a zero amplitude point at the closed end. For resonance to occur, a node (total destructive interference) must be located at the closed end, and an anti-node (total constructive interference) must be located at the open end. The most obvious condition to satisfy these requirements is to have ¼ of a wave in the tube.

Middle

Total wavelength      λ

Quarter of wave length (1/4) λ

512

0.664m

0.166m

1.36m

0.34m

339.968m/s

288

1.152m

0.288m

1.152m

0.6m

331.776m/s

384

0.88cm

0.22m

2.26m

0.565m

337.92m/s

Average speed

336.554m/s

Air column temperature 25 C (at room temperature)

 Frequency of tuning fork 1st resonance 2nd resonance Speed sound 60C air inside resonance tube Total wavelength      λ Quarter of wave length (1/4) λ Total wavelength      λ Quarter of wave length (1/4) λ 512 0.656m 0.164m 2.432m 0.608m 335.872m/s 288 1.12m 0.28m 2.2m 0.55m 322.56m/s 384 0.98m 0.245m 2.656m 0.664m 376.32m/s Average speed 344.917m/s

Air column temperature 60 C

 Frequency of tuning fork 1st resonance 2nd resonance Speed sound 60C air inside resonance tube Total wavelength      λ Quarter of wave length (1/4) λ Total wavelength      λ Quarter of wave length (1/4) λ 512 0.7m 0.175m 1.576m 0.394m 358.4m/s 288 1.192m 0.298m 2.5m 0.625m 343.296m/s 384 0.95m 0.38m 3.22m 0.805m 364.8m/s Average speed 355.498m/s

Conclusion

My results support the prediction I made .That the velocity of sound would increase the hotter the air became in the resonance column. because the density is being altered if the air is very hot then there will be a high density. The air molecules expand when heated and the air molecules become lighter. Sound can travel much quicker in lighter molecules .Between 4 c and 60 c there I found from my results that the velocity of sound increased by 20m/s.This will enable to predict other investigations based around this subject, if I wanted to investigate other the velocity of sound. at different temperatures in other gases and if it travels faster in them than air .I got one anmanous result which was down to the a fall temperature because the tempreture was not being very carefully

When a tuning fork is held over a tube, a standing wave pattern is formed in the tube. UndeSelected Sound Speeds in Gases

 Gas Temperature (°C) Speed in m/s Air 0 331.5 Air 20 344 Hydrogen 0 1270

Conclusion

2) Collect three different frequency tuning fork, a 1000mm measuring stick, and three open-ended air columns for each of the resonance tubes.

Set the equipment out like the diagram below:

I am going to collect evidence by;

1) Taking the temperature inside the air column, and recording it.

2) Hitting the tuning the fork against a hard surface to make it vibrate then holding above the tube which is sitting in a reservoir of water the resonance tube (each one of the three resonance tubes will have water in it to chill the air in the tube or air column to the temperatures needed). Start with a very short air column with the tuning fork held above it, gradually increase the length of the tube until a strong resonance occurs. Then measure the distance from the waters surface to the end of the air column, and record the distance as the first resonance position.

3) if you then increase the length further until an other resonance occurs with the tuning fork vibrating above it, it will give you the second resonance position then record the distance of the air column.

4) Do this for each tuning fork for each in each of the air column temperatures.

To make sure the experiment fair I am going to measure the temperature of the air in the air column, before I try to find the resonance, so that if the temperature has risen or dropped. I can modify it to the set temperature of each of the three conditions. Use secondary information and combined it with my own to get an average.

The cold air temperature will be set between 4-8 C; I will set the temperature when we take the 1st temperature with the chilled water for the first tuning fork.  I will then maintain that temperature through the experiment with the cold air.

I am going to use tuning forks with a frequency’s of 512,288,384.

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