• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Issues and factors influencing the development and treatment of coronary heart disease.

Extracts from this document...


Issues and factors influencing the development and treatment of coronary heart disease Coronary heart disease is a condition in which the fatty deposits of atherosclerosis form in the coronary arteries that supply the heart muscle, narrowing them and restricting the blood flow. These arteries may already be hardened (arteriosclerosis). If the hearts oxygen requirements are increased, as during exercise, the blood supply through the narrowed arteries may be inadequate, and the pain of angina results. A heart attack occurs if the blood supply to an area off the heart is cut off, for example because a blood clot has blocked one of the coronary arteries. The subsequent lack of oxygen damages the heart muscle, and if a large area of the heart is affected, the attack may be fatal. 'Arteriosclerotic depositions in the coronary arteries result in the narrowing of these vessels, causing insufficient blood flow and oxygen to the heart muscle, a condition known as coronary artery disease. The characteristic radiating chest pain, angina pectoris, is the most prominent symptom of this condition. Coronary arteries already narrowed by arteriosclerosis are made susceptible to blockage by a clot (coronary thrombosis), causing the death of the heart muscle supplied by the affected artery, a life-threatening event called a myocardia infarction, or heart attack.' ...read more.


The condition is treated with drugs or bypass surgery. 'Research shows that people who develop heart disease usually have one or more of the following: high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, a history of cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus, or an inherited (therefore genetic) tendency. They may also be obese (fat) and may not have exercised regularly.' 3 'Smoking is a major contributor increasing the likelihood of both thrombosis and atherosclerosis. A raised level of fat, especially cholesterol, in the blood is a major cause of atherosclerosis. Saturated fat of the type found in most meat and animal products, such as milk is particularly dangerous. High blood pressure or hyper intensive disease, a high level of salt in the diet and diabetes are factors which contribute to atherosclerosis and hence coronary heart disease.' 4 'Type 2 is the form of diabetes suffered from about 80% of diabetics. It develops when the body produces too little insulin due to malfunction of the beta cells or when the target cells fail to respond to insulin. ...Diabetics have a 2-4 times greater than average risk of stroke (caused by damage to the arteries of the brain) ...read more.


A cold laser may be used to remove atherosclerotic plaques with bursts of ultraviolet light. It does little damage to the arteries and leaves the walls of the vessels smooth, without the burning and scarring created by hot lasers.' 1 Mechanical cutting devices, called atherotomes, are sometimes to ream atherosclerotic plaque material from the vessel in a procedure called atherectomy. Plaque is made of oily molecules known as cholesterol, fibrous proteins, calcium deposits, tiny blood cells known as platelets, and debris from dead cells. Plaque formation often begins by adolescence and progresses very slowly over the course of decades. Gradually, the growing plaque thickens the wall of the artery, reducing the space available for life-giving blood to flow through Another procedure is the endoscopic procedure, known as percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), involves the use of a balloon- tipped catheter to widen the diseased vessel. PTCA is cheaper and less invasive than CABG, but in roughly a third of cases further surgery is required in six months. The use of the balloon catheter often can be complicated by cracks or weakening of the walls of the vessels and may lead to rapid reclogging of the vessel. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Humans as Organisms section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Humans as Organisms essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Myocardial infarction

    5 star(s)

    There is a plethora of drugs and treatments given to improve blood flow and oxygenation to the heart ( about to be discussed ). These drugs are given to increase and/or decrease cardiac output. Look up SAAB Mr T on admission to CCU was commenced on Clexane as well as a cocktail of other medications.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Explain how arteries, veins, and capillaries are adapted for their functions. Describe what happens ...

    4 star(s)

    Ideally, there should be a higher ratio of HDL to LDL to ensure any excess is returned. When this ratio is unbalanced and the blood contains surplus LDL rich lipoproteins, they are engulfed by phagocytes within the artery walls just beneath the endothelium.

  1. Human biology short notes

    * Active sperms meet the ovum in the oviduct * Enzymes are released from the acrosome of the sperms to penetrate the ovum * Eventually one sperm penetrates the ovum releasing only the nucleus into the ovum * The protein coat of the ovum thickness preventing entry of other sperms

  2. The Biological and Psychological Impact of Smoking Cigarettes

    Stroke also results in neurological and tissue damage resulting paralysis. The symptoms of stroke are easy to spot, sudden numbness or weakness, especially on one side of the body, sudden confusion or trouble speaking or understanding speech (4).

  1. Discuss the division of resources with regards to the prevention and treatment of CHDs:

    ways, so if one particular drug doesn't suit you, your doctor will usually be able to prescribe a different one. The following are the main categories of heart drugs. For specific information on a medication you have been prescribed, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

  2. Should people with diabetes 2 receive medical treatment?

    Some fatty acids can be synthesised in our bodies but they can also be obtained from fish oil supplements, oily fish, eggs or animals fed on omega 3 enriched diets. If the body lacks carbohydrate it can convert fat into energy, however, less energy is produced and the body is not efficient at converting energy in this way.

  1. HSC Module-Blueprint of Life

    species and explain the purpose of this hybridisation: - In Kenya, hybridisation has been carried out by means of artificial insemination between Jersey cattle and the African Sahiwal cattle. The purpose of the hybridisation is to increase milk yield and quality.

  2. Is Smoking The Main Cause Of Heart Disease?

    Written By Myself How is Smoking causing Heart disease? In this section I will look at how Smoking causes heart disease, what it does to your heart and how smoking increases the risk of getting heart disease... Source 1 - Smoking is the biggest risk factor for sudden death; up to 18 in every 100 deaths from heart disease are associated with smoking.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work