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Kinetic Theory of Matter Investigation

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Introduction

The Kinetic Theory of Matter The main points of the kinetic theory are: 1. All matter is made up of tiny, invisible, moving particles. 2. Particles of different substances have different sizes. 3. Smaller particles move faster than heavier ones at a given temperature. 4. As the temperature rises, the particles move faster because the particles have more kinetic energy. 5. In a solid, the particles are a very close together and they can only vibrate about fixed positions. 6. In a liquid, the particles are a little further apart. They have more energy and they can move around each other. 7. In a gas, the particles are far apart. They move rapidly and randomly in all the space they can find. This diagram shows the particles in the three states of matter: The Collision Theory of Chemical Reactions A chemical reaction cannot happen unless particles in the reacting substances collide with each other. There are three main conditions which must be presenting order for a reaction to occur: 1. The reactant particles must collide. 2. They must collide at the correct orientation (e.g. a head on collision is better than a glancing blow) 3. The must collide with a minimum amount of energy, (the activation energy) to allow the rearrangement of atoms; otherwise they simply bounce of each other. Changing the Rate of a Chemical Reaction The rate of reaction is only affected if there is a change in the frequency of the collisions, or if the proportion of collisions which are effective (cause a reaction) ...read more.

Middle

This is to try and obtain more reliable and accurate results, and eliminate anomalous results. * We will work out the rate of reaction at the beginning of the experiment for each concentration. We will work out the rate at 20s because it is only at the beginning of the reaction that the concentration is actually what we intend because the acid gets used up in the reaction and the concentration decreases. We will use small (100ml) measuring cylinders to measure the volume of acid and distilled water to make up our different solutions as this is far more accurate than a larger measuring cylinder. For the lower concentrations we will also use a small measuring cylinder to collect the gas from the reaction as this is more accurate. However for the middle concentrations we will have to use a big measuring cylinder and for the most concentrated solutions we will probably have to use two measuring cylinders. As we are conducting the experiment we will decide when to switch to big cylinders. We will make up the different concentrations of acid by using 2M acid and diluting it with distilled water. For example to make a solution with a 30% concentration we will use 30ml acid and 70ml water. Fair Testing To ensure a fair test there should only be one variable throughout the experiment, the concentration of the acid. Therefore all other variables which affect reaction rates must be constant. ...read more.

Conclusion

I thought the rate of reaction would increase steadily, however in our experiment the increase in rate rose as the concentration increased. This may once again be because the carbon dioxide dissolved into the water until it was saturated, but in the higher concentrated solutions there was less water for the carbon dioxide gas to dissolve into. So it collected in the measuring cylinder quicker. Overall I think our experimental procedure was quite good, although our results did not quite follow the trend we expected from our background knowledge and other sources. These inaccuracies may have been caused by things which we could not control. The experiment was carried out over several different days. The room temperature may have changed on the different days and caused a change in the rate of the reaction. We used marble chips for our experiment but these chips were different sizes and would have therefore had different surface areas so this would have affected the reaction rate as well. The reaction rate should have been faster at the beginning because the concentration of the acid would be higher at first before it gets used up in the experiment. However, using our graphs, it appeared the reaction was faster at the end of the experiment. As I explained before this was probably because the carbon dioxide, which was produced from the experiment, dissolved in the water in the solution, and only some of the gas produced collected in the measuring cylinder. ?? ?? ?? ?? SashaThambapillai 10S - Chemistry GCSE Coursework ...read more.

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