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# Lab Report on Acceleration

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Fatin Al Alawi

IB Physics 11 HL

2006-2007

## Investigation 4

### Newton’s Second Law

Fatin Al Alawi

IB Physics 11 HL

Lab Report

Investigation 4

Newton’s Second Law

Duration: 3 hours

Aim:

To confirm the relationship between the net force applied to a body and the body’s acceleration.

Background:

This experiment has two parts

• Part A: How does the acceleration of a trolley change as you change the weight of the total mass on a mass holder supported by a pulley?
• Part B: How does the acceleration of a trolley change as you change the weight of the total mass on the trolley itself?

When the trolley is released, it accelerates to the right due to the mass on the mass holder, passing through two light gates. A scalar timer connected to each light gate records the time taken for a card mounted on the glider to pass through the light gate The time recorded at the two light gates is used to calculate 2 different speeds of the glider, and hence the acceleration of the glider may be found.

Equipment: Trolley, 2 light gates, 2 scalar timers, masses, string, card, ruler, electric scale

Part A:

Data Collection:

 Mass of ‘Weight’ (g) Time (s) Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Trial 4 LG1 LG2 LG1 LG2 LG1 LG2 LG1 LG2 30 0.84 0.44 0.87 0.45 0.85 0.44 0.86 0.44 40 0.62 0.33 0.64 0.32 0.63 0.32 0.62 0.32 50 0.52 0.28 0.53 0.27 0.53 0.27 0.53 0.27 60 0.45 0.24 0.46 0.24 0.46 0.24 0.46 0.24 70 0.42 0.22 0.42 0.22 0.41 0.21 0.41 0.21 80 0.39 0.20 0.39 0.20 0.39 0.20 0.39 0.20 90 0.37 0.19 0.36 0.19 0.36 0.19 0.36 0.19 100 0.34 0.17 0.34 0.18 0.34 0.17 0.34 0.18 110 0.32 0.17 0.32 0.17 0.32 0.17 0.32 0.17 120 0.30 0.16 0.30 0.16 0.30 0.16 0.30 0.16

Constants:
Mass of car 607.8 g
Distance between light gate 1(LG
1) to light gate 2 (LG2): 30 cm
Card length: 17 cm

Data Processing:

To convert the masses to forces we must do the following.

Middle

0.85

0.88

0.47

0.89

0.98

0.50

0.97

1.08

0.53

1.00

1.18

0.57

1.06

To calculate the acceleration we will need to use the following equation for motion:

The next step is to make a (acceleration) the subject of the equation

This means that, where v is final velocity, u is initial velocity, and s is the distance traveled which is a fixed value of 30 cm (Distance between Light Gate 1 and Light Gate 2)

Acceleration:

 Force (N) Acceleration (ms-2) 0.29 0.18 0.39 0.34 0.49 0.48 0.59 0.61 0.69 0.76 0.78 0.89 0.88 0.97 0.98 1.16 1.08 1.20 1.18 1.35

There is a linear relationship in this graph; this shows that the net force is directly proportional to the acceleration.

Part B:

Data Collection:

 Additional Mass of Cart (g) Time (s) Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Trial 4 LG1 LG2 LG1 LG2 LG1 LG2 LG1 LG2 0 0.39 0.20 0.39 0.20 0.40 0.20 0.40 0.20 50 0.42 0.21 0.43 0.22 0.42 0.21 0.43 0.22 100 0.46 0.23 0.46 0.23 0.45 0.23 0.45 0.23 150 0.49 0.25 0.50 0.25 0.49 0.25 0.49 0.25 200 0.51 0.26 0.50 0.25 0.52 0.27 0.51 0.26 250 0.54 0.28 0.55 0.28 0.54 0.28 0.55 0.28 300 0.58 0.29 0.57 0.29 0.59 0.29 0.57 0.29 350 0.61 0.31 0.61 0.31 0.61 0.31 0.61 0.31 400 0.66 0.34 0.65 0.33 0.66 0.35 0.65 0.34 450 0.79 0.39 0.78 0.39 0.80 0.40 0.78 0.38

Constants:
Mass of car: 407.7 g
Distance between light gate 1(LG
1) and light gate 2 (LG2): 30 cm
Card length: 17 cm

Mass on Pulley: 50 g

Data Processing:

Mass of Cart:

To find the mass of the cart we need to add the initial mass of the cart to the additional mass added onto it. We also need to convert this number into kilograms.

Conclusion

To ensure the accuracy of our lab we did many things. Firstly, we measured the distance between the light gates more than one and between trials. Secondly, we made sure that the light gates were placed parallel to the edge of the counter. Also, we drew a line that would show us where we should release the cart. Next, we did four trials instead of three or one trial. We weighed the cart more than once and we measured the length of the card more than once as well. Finally, we tried to keep the lab as accurate as possible by doing the same jobs each time because everybody does their own job in their own way and if that way was kept constant than our results would be more accurate.

Next time, we will use a different set-up, preferably with an air-track and a very streamlined glider. We will take even more accurate measurements so that our data would be even more accurate than it is. We will make sure we are releasing the cart from the same place each time, even if it means we need to use a magnifying glass. We will also try to do this lab in one sitting. Finally, we will try to come up with a way in which we will release the cart so that it would be the same each time.

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Forces and Motion section.

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