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List the effects of exercise on the cardiovascular system, including the cardiac cycle and blood pressure. Identify the transport or respiratory gases and oxygen dissociation curves. Identify the Transport of respiratory gases and oxygen dissociation curv

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Introduction

IVA Task 2 - List the effects of exercise on the cardiovascular system, including the cardiac cycle and blood pressure. Identify the transport or respiratory gases and oxygen dissociation curves. Identify the Transport of respiratory gases and oxygen dissociation curves. The cardiac cycle is a process which involves cardiac contraction and blood transportation through the heart, the heart can be viewed as two separate pumps to serve its dual purpose. The cardiac cycle explains the sequence of events that takes place during one complete heart beat. The diastole phase which is the filling of the heart with blood and the systole phase which is the emptying of the blood into the arterial system is involved in the cardiac cycle. These cycles take approximately 0.8 seconds and they occur on an average of 72 times per minute, 4 stages occur to each heart beat, they are:- Atrial Diastole Ventricular Diastole Atrial Systole Ventricular Systole Within each stage will depend on whether the heart is filling with blood whilst the heart is relaxing which is diastole, or if the heart is emptying the blood, this means the heart is contracting which is systole, this forces the blood from one part of the heart to another or into the arterial system, and subsequently to the lungs of the body. Stage one of the cardiac cycle is the atrial diastole, this is when the upper chambers of the heart or the atria are filled with blood returning from the body via the venae carvae to the right atrium and the lungs via the pulmonary vein to the left atrium. ...read more.

Middle

This means that blood pressure will increase when either cardiac output or resistance increases. Blood pressure in the arteries also increases and decreases in a pattern which corresponds to the cardiac cycle during ventricular systole, this is higher when blood is pumped into the aorta and lowest during ventricular diastole. Blood pressure is normally measured at the brachial artery using a sphygmomanometer, which is recorded in millimetres of mercury - mmHg of systolic pressure over diastolic pressure. Systolic pressure is when the heart pumps blood into the system and diastolic pressure is recorded when the heart is relaxing with blood while relaxing. The average reading for a male adult at rest would be:- 120 mmHg = Systolic 80 mmHg Diastolic When exercising the blood pressure changes and it is dependant upon the type and intensity of the exercise being performed. During steady aerobic exercise involving large muscle groups, the systolic pressure increases as a result of an increased cardiac output, while diastolic pressure remains constant, although in well trained athletes this may even drop as blood feeds into the working muscle due to increased arteriole dilation. The increased systolic pressure associated with exercise is largely the result of increased cardiac output associated with an increased intensity. This ensures that adequate blood is supplied to the working muscle quickly. During high intensity isometric and anaerobic exercise, both systolic and diastolic pressure rise significantly due to increased resistance of the blood vessels. ...read more.

Conclusion

The partial of oxygen influences the saturation of haemoglobin with oxygen. The partial pressure of oxygen at sea level is always high enough for full saturation of haemoglobin in the lungs. When the blood arrives at the tissues the partial pressure of oxygen drops, causing the oxygen to dissociate from the haemoglobin and diffuse into the cell. At high altitudes the change in barometric pressure causes the partial pressure of oxygen to drop. This means that the haemoglobin is not fully saturated at the lungs and the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood is decreases. This can cause an athlete working at altitude problems. As the body temperature increases the oxygen dissociates more easily from the haemoglobin, so as the partial pressure of carbon dioxide increases the dissociation of oxygen from haemoglobin increases. During exercise the amount of carbon dioxide produced by the cells increases, this helps to increase the diffusion of much needed oxygen into the cell. A change in pH will occur as more carbon dioxide is produced so the concentration of hydrogen ions in the blood will increase, thus lowering the pH, this drop in pH will cause the oxygen to dissociate more easily which can also be known as the Bohr effect. Class Notes Through a combination of these factors means that as we start to exercise, the rate of diffusion of oxygen into the cells accelerates and helps to maintain a good supply of oxygen to the working muscles. Class notes ?? ?? ?? ?? Tim Bushell AHD ...read more.

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