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Living things, Biology revision notes

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Introduction

Biology Point (1) Living things Mrs Nerg the 7 life processes: MOVEMENT REPRODUCTION SENSTIVITY NUTRITION EXCRETION RESPIRATION food + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water + energy. GROWTH Cells Plant cells: Nucleus, Chloroplast, Vacuole, Cell membrane, Cell wall, Cytoplasm Animal cells: Nucleus, Cell membrane, Cytoplasm CYTOPLASM: chemical reactions take place here these reactions help keep the cell alive. MITOCHONDRIA IN THE CYTOPLASM: Respiration takes place here. In the MITOCHONDRIAN respiration takes place to release energy from the food molecules. NUCLEUS: It contains instructions to make new cells; it also controls what the cell does. CELL MEMBRANE: it controls what goes in and out of the cell. It also gives the cell its shape. (it's a thin layer of skin.) VACOULE: It contains a liquid called cell sap (a large permanent vacuole.) CHLOROPLAST: It contains chlorophyll (which traps light for photosynthesis to take place.) CYTOPLASM IN PLANT CELLS: Contain starch grains CELL WALL: it's a tough cellulose cell wall that covers the thin layer of cell membrane and strengthens the cell. ...read more.

Middle

NERVE CELLS: Carry messages around the body. SINGLE CELLS: They are unicellular. AMOEBA: It lives in ponds and ditches. It moves by changing its shape. It pushes out pseudopodia. It feeds on smaller things like bacteria. They get taken into a food vacuole. They add an enzyme to break down the food. Oxygen is dissolved into the water around AMOEBA. It gets inside by diffusion. The waste substances diffuse out of Amoeba by diffusion as well. MANY CELLS: They are multi cellular. SPIROGRYA: It lives on the surface of a pond. The cells are all joined together by filaments. It makes its own food by photosynthesis because they contain a chloroplast. CELL SIZE: As the surface area: volume ratio increases the cell size decreases. This means multicellular cells have a slower rate of diffusion. HOW TO FIGURE OUT THE SURFACE AREA: VOLUME RATIO IS? 1cm 2cm 3cm A B C A) SA : VR 1x 1x6=6:1X1X1= 1cm 6:1 therefore 6 divided by 1 = 6 B) ...read more.

Conclusion

ROUND WORMS (long, they have a thread like body) SEGMENTED WORMS (their body divide into segments). CNIDARIANS (they have a sac like body, they have tentacles) MOLLUCSC (have a shell and a muscular foot) ENCHINODERMS (spiny skins and have a pattern of 5 parts). ANTHRAPODS: INSECTS (have a 3 part body, 3 pairs of legs and 2 pairs of wings) CRUSTACEANS (chalky exoskeleton) MYRIAPODS (have a segmented body and have many legs) ARACHNIDS (body in 2 parts, 4 pairs of legs). THE PLANT KINGDOM PLANTS: FERNS (They have strong stems, roots and leaves. They make spores).They have xylem in them. CONIFERS (needle like leaves. Their seed are made inside the cone). They make female and male cones instead of flowers. FLOWERING PLANT (They have flowers which make seeds). MOSSES AND LIVERWORTS (no proper roots or cells, they make spores and lose water) THE PROTISTS: They are unicellular (Protists) and they can be (algae) when they are multicellular. FUNGI: (Most fungi are saprophytes). They make spores. They are made up of thin threads called hyphae. BACTERIA: They haven't got a proper nucleus and they are microscopic. PARASITES: When something lives of another organism ...read more.

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