• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Lung Cancer

Extracts from this document...


Transfer-Encoding: chunked ´╗┐Science Report ? Lung Cancer Lung cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells that form in one or both lungs, usually in the cells of air passages. The abnormal cells do not develop into healthy lung tissue, but instead divide rapidly and form tumours, which undermine the lung?s ability to provide the bloodstream with oxygen. Cancerous tumours are called malignant tumours, which spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream. This process of the cancer spreading beyond its site of origin to other parts of the body is called metastasis, which causes lung cancer to be much harder to treat successfully. Primary lung cancer originates in the lungs, while secondary lung cancer starts elsewhere in the body, metastasises and reaches the lungs. They are considered different and are treated differently. Cancer is ultimately the result of cells that uncontrollably grow and do not die. Normal cells in the body follow an orderly path of growth, division, and death. Programmed cell death is called apoptosis, and when this process breaks down, cancer begins to form. The diagram illustrates the process of apoptosis, and highlights the process of regular cell deaths. However, unlike regular cells, cancer cells do not experience programmatic death and instead continue to grow and divide. This leads to a mass of abnormal cells that grows out of control. ...read more.


In addition, the liver may become enlarged and cause jaundice and bones can become painful, brittle, and broken. It is also possible for the cancer to infect the adrenal glands resulting in hormone level changes. If the cancer is in the bronchi or trachea leading to the lungs, it can be harder for air to pass into and out of the lungs. If this occurs, the decreased air movement can result in a wheezing noise upon breathing, as well as difficulty breathing. In more advanced lung cancer, the tumour may affect neighbouring tissues and cause problems with the heart and nerves that run to the face and arms, vocal cords, or diaphragm. The cancer may also grow to the point of invading the oesophagus causing difficulty swallowing. Lung cancer eventually prevents the lungs from providing oxygen to the body, through a malignant tumour blockage, and low oxygen levels occur. This will often finally kill the infected person. The effects of lung cancer on everyday living can also be detrimental, severely impairing the quality of life of patients. Lung cancer can make it hard to breathe, and the shortness of breath can furthermore cause anxiety and stress and hinder physical activity, preventing a patient from being as active as they may once have been. They may lack energy and feel fatigued, and also struggle with the grief, shock and denial that so often accompanies a cancer diagnosis. ...read more.


Finally, lung cancer takes an enormous toll on society, placing a huge economical burden on society in terms of disability and premature mortality, and also in direct health service costs, drugs prescribed and the indirect costs related to lost production. Lung cancer has one of the most devastating economic impacts of any cause of death in the world, as a result of disability and premature death. The lost years of life and productivity caused by lung cancer represent the single largest drain on the global economy, compared to other diseases such as HIV and heart disease. The economic burdens of cancer results in loss of income in low-income countries, where sickness or death can quickly undermine family finances in societies. This further hampers economic development prospects in many nations, in which many countries are losing almost 1% of their Gross Domestic Product (GDP) to lung cancer. Without targeted cost effective interventions, the silent pandemic of cancer has spread through low and middle income countries due to lack of awareness surrounding smoking. Some public health systems and social structures have already become threatened as a result of lung cancer, with $180 billion in damage annually on the global economy. To conclude, compelling evidence from many cancer foundations suggest that balancing the world?s global health agenda, such as international programs to reduce tobacco, will not only avert needless deaths and suffering from lung cancer but also reduce its devastating economical, societal and physical impacts. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Humans as Organisms section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Humans as Organisms essays

  1. Peer reviewed

    What is DNA?

    5 star(s)

    When the chromosome replicates, it builds up an exact replica of itself, gene by gene. When the chromatids separate at mitosis, each cell will receive a full set of genes. In this way, the chemical instructions in the zygote are passed on to all cells of the body.

  2. Heart - Physical features.

    Note the slight increase in aortic pressure (red waveform) which occurs immediately following; this is caused by the backsplash of blood against a closed aortic valve and is called the dicrotic notch.

  1. Stem Cell Research

    But it is only a matter of time before stem cell research will find a solution to this, providing an easier and cheaper way to test drugs. Moral and Ethical Issues Many groups of people in our society are opposed to embryonic stem cell research, because of the ethical and moral issues that arise.

  2. The Biological and Psychological Impact of Smoking Cigarettes

    The large number of mucus glands secretes a large amount of mucus into the airway which must be coughed up to prevent drowning in your own secretion (12). Breathlessness on exertion is eventually noticed due to obstruction to air flow in the air passages caused by swelling of the bronchial and the presence of mucus that can't be cleared(5).

  1. Does cloning benefit or endanger society?

    It is clear that Ian Wilmut feels the cons outweigh the pros in this case, and this is made evident as he states that 'the possibility for harm far outweighs any conceivable benefits.' Ian Wilmut's evidence for his idea is that only 1 of the 277 reprogrammed eggs - eggs

  2. Discuss the division of resources with regards to the prevention and treatment of CHDs:

    Transplants are also very costly to the NHS and donors may not always be available. A better method may be to repair the heart with bypass operations - an autograft, if areas of the coronary artery have become blocked with atheromatous plaques.

  1. The Lung

    Within the lung, the bronchus divides into smaller and smaller tubes, much as a tree limb divides into branches and twigs. The final "twigs" are tiny tubes called bronchioles. The smallest bronchioles, called terminal bronchioles, lead to the respiratory units of the lung.

  2. HSC Module-Blueprint of Life

    It appeared in the late Jurassic > It shared features with both birds and reptiles, suggesting that birds evolved from these reptiles > REPTILE Features: long-tail, claws, no keel, solid bones, teeth > BIRD Features: wish-bone, feathers - Biogeography: * Biogeography is the study of the distribution of living things

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work