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Making Aspirin.

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Introduction

TITLE: MAKING ASPIRIN. AIM: My aim in this experiment is to know the different methods used in making aspirin, the most suitable methods in making it, the apparatus needed in making the aspirin, the procedures and methods used in making aspirin. After this, I will be performing an experiment in the laboratory on making aspirin, using the most suitable method and I will also be looking at the evaluation. BACKGROUND INFORMATION. HISTORY OF ASPIRIN. Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is a simple molecule first synthesized in Germany 150 years ago. Its pain-relieving properties were recognized and exploited commercially 100 years ago. In the last 50 years, aspirin has been shown to have remarkable antithrombotic benefits. Aspirin's antithrombotic effect is mediated by inhibition of blood platelets. The drug blocks a platelet enzyme, cyclo-oxygenase, by acetylating the enzyme's active site. Inhibition of the enzyme blocks production of an important prothrombotic agent known as thromboxane A2. Thromboxane A2 causes activation and aggregation of platelets, which is an early step in thrombosis. Aspirin is more effective in preventing arterial thrombosis (myocardial infarction, stroke) than venous thrombosis (deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism). The explanation for this difference seems to be that platelets play a larger role in causing arterial thrombosis. Aspirin is a member of a family of chemicals called salicylates. These chemicals have been known to people interested in medicine for centuries. ...read more.

Middle

Aspirin is prepared by chemical synthesis from salicylic acid, by acetylation with acetic anhydride. Materials and Apparatus. Materials needed. 8-10 drops of acetic anhydride. * 0.05-0.10 g of salicylic acid. 3-4 drops of sulfuric acid, concentrated. * Several drops of 1% FeCl3 solution. *Use extreme caution and avoid skin contact. Sulfuric acid and acetic anhydride may cause severe burns. Apparatus needed. 4 test tubes, 13 � 100 mm. 4 stoppers to fit the test tube. 1 micropipette. 2 beakers, 250 ml, one for hot water bath, one for ice bath. Ice. Hot plate. Filter paper. Watch glass. HEALTH AND SAFETY. General Safety Guidelines in the laboratory. * Always wear proper eye protection in chemical work, handling, and chemical storage areas. Contact lenses should not be worn in the laboratory. Special precautions should be taken if they are worn. * Always know the physical and chemical properties of the materials used in an experiment or demonstration (e.g., corrosiveness, flammability, reactivity, toxicity, and stability.) * Always wear appropriate protective clothing (e.g. lab coats), including shoes with enclosed toe areas. Do not wear high-heeled shoes, open-toed shoes, sandals, or shoes made of woven material. Tanks tops, shorts, or short skirts should not be worn in the laboratory. Disposable aprons are cheap and can effectively protect the body and clothing. * Confine long hair and loose clothing. * Always wash hands and arms with soap and water before, or immediately after, leaving the work area. ...read more.

Conclusion

For example, it can allow doses of these narcotic agents to be reduced, so that patients are less sedated and can enjoy a better quality of life. It is now being given as infusions of lysine-acetylsalicylic acid (lysine-aspirin) around the spinal cord ("intrathecally") to patients with intractable cancer pain and severe back pain. In the first study, in 1983 (Devogel et al) a single dose gave relief to 34 patients for between 2 and 27 days (mean 6 days): a second study in 1987 confirmed this benefit in 60 cancer patients (Pellerin). Aspirin has also been successfully used topically - on the skin - to relieve the pain of shingles. Future uses of aspirin may include a "patch" preparation, to deliver the drug through the skin. Against fevers: Fevers caused by infections respond well to aspirin because it acts directly on the temperature regulation center in the brain. Against inflammation: Inflammation, with its classic signs of swelling, redness, local heat, loss of function and pain, is part of the body's reaction to infection or injury. It also occurs as an abnormal reaction in diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Aspirin was the first of the "non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs"(NSAIDs) now so widely used against arthritis. Although not a cure for arthritis, aspirin can relieve all the signs of inflammation, allowing sufferers to become more mobile and lead more active lives in relative comfort. However this needs medical supervision and higher doses to obtain an anti-inflammatory effect than would be taken for simple aches and pains or a headache. OBI AGUIYI AVCE SCIENCE YEAR 2. 1 ...read more.

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