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Making magnisium carbonate (MgCO3)

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MAKING MAGNISIUM CARBONATE (MgCO3) MgCO3 is white very lightweight powder that is practically insoluble in water. Magnesium carbonate is made by precipitation from a solution of magnesium sulphate and sodium carbonate. Heavy and light varieties are available. A solution of magnesium sulphate and sodium carbonate makes light magnesium carbonate. Magnesium carbonate is a compound. Compounds are formed when the atoms of two or more elements join together PRECIPITATION Precipitation reaction is reaction that starts with liquids solutions and gets a result with a solid. Precipitates are compounds which are practically insoluble in water. The occurrence of this reactions forms an insoluble compound which is a solid and because this solid is formed quickly its particles are very small making the solution cloudy or collects at the bottom of the test tube as a powder MgSO4 (aq) + NaCO3 (aq) MgCO3 (s) + NaSO4 (aq) From the equation above MgSO4 (aq) and NaCO3 (aq) are both liquids and their result include MgCO3 (s) which is a solid compound formed by precipitation. IONIC BONDING Forces that hold ionic compounds together form ionic bond. Ionic bonding happens between metals and non-metals. ...read more.


24 + 12 + 16(3) MgSO4 24+32+16(4) 24+32+64 120g MgCO3 24+12+16(3) 24+12+48 84g Calculating theoretical yield The theoretical yield is the maximum amount of product that can be made. You will need..... Mg + S + O4 to make Mg + C + O3 24 + 32 +16(4) 24 + 12 + 16(3) This means..... MgSO4 Mg + S + O4 24 + 32 + 16(4) 24+32+64 120g (RMM) ......you will need 120g MgSO4.... MgCO3 Mg + C + O3 24 +12 + 16(3) 24+12+48 84g (RMM) .....to make 84g MgCO3 In my experiment I will be using 3g of MgSO4. If 120g of MgSO4 can make 84g of MgCO3, to find what 1g of MgSO4 will make I will divide 84 by 120 84/120 0.7g This means 1 gram of MgSO4 makes 0.7g of MgCO3. Therefore for 3g of MgSO4 I will multiply it by 3, which will make 2.1g of MgCO3. So the theoretical yield (100% yield) is 2.1g MgCO3 Calculating % yield The actual yield is the amount obtained from after the experiment. To calculate the percentage actual yield we divide the actual yield by the theoretical and multiply it by a hundred. ...read more.


This is to say they want to make products 'right first time' without any flaws or defects. This called Total Quality Management (TQM). There are three main aspects of TQM that are distinctive to the Pharmaceutical industry Long developing time Once a promising molecule has been found, it can take up to 12 years of producing and testing to the launch of the medicine. This is to allow the company to ensure that the medicine is acceptably safe for use. The licence and the production processes. In the pharmaceutical industry a licence has to be granted before a medicine can be produced. Its issue depends on the production process. Therefore, once the licence has been issued, it is very difficult to change the process. This means that the production process must be carefully planned at the very beginning. Overriding concern for safety This can be seen by the use of strict quality control systems. Quality control is operation of methods and procedures for measuring, recoding and maintaining the level of quality It includes: * Checking the safety of a medicine through extensive trials * A system for tracking each stage in the production of a batch * Heavy investment in training. Pharmaceutical companies devote a lot of time to training. They encourage their staff to take responsibility for their work. ...read more.

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