• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Manufacture Of Iron By Blast Furnace Process.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Manufacture Of Iron By Blast Furnace Process Iron is a naturally occurring element in its ore form (Haematite), however for iron to be of any use the impurities must be removed. This is done by a process involving a blast furnace. Extremely high temperature in the range of 870�C are reached within the blast furnace and this heat causes reactions to occur within the blast furnace that remove some of the impurities from the iron ore. The materials placed in the blast furnace are iron ore, coke and limestone. Coke is the reducing agent [substance that causes the substance it is reacting with to be reduced and in turn is oxidised], when hot air is blasted into the furnace it reacts with the coke to form carbon monoxide, this carbon monoxide then goes on to react with the iron oxides which are present in the iron ore to reduce [removal of oxygen from a substance] the oxides to metallic iron. The limestone is simply present to react with the impurities removed from the ore forming calcium silicate. Without the limestone Iron Silicate would form therefore reducing the yield of metallic iron. The Calcium Silicate and other impurities sit on top of the molten metallic iron forming a layer known as slag. ...read more.

Middle

The process used to achieve all this is called the Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Process (BOS). It is a batch proves in which 300 tonnes of high quality steel are made in about 40 minutes. The step by step stages involved are outlined below: Removing Unwanted Elements 300 tonnes of molten iron form the blast furnace are poured into a device called a ladle. Removing Sulphur Sulphur is removed first and this happens separate from the main steelmaking process. To do this several hundred kilograms of magnesium powder is injected into the ladle by a tube called a lance. By a violent exothermic reaction the sulphur reacts with the magnesium forming Magnesium Sulphide on the surface which is raked off. Mg + S --> MgS Other elements Carbon, Phosphorus and the other impurities are removed by direct oxidation [oxidation is where substances are oxidised so gain oxygen but loose electrons] C + 1/2 O2 --> CO Si + O2 --> SiO2 Mn + 1/2 O2 --> MnO 4P + 5O2 --> P4O10 Fe + 1/2 O2 --> FeO This is not a desired reaction but occris anyway. The ladle then takes the desulphrised iron to a steelmaking vessel which already contain some scrap steel. ...read more.

Conclusion

Mild steel is also used in the construction of car bodies. Mild steel is also used in school workshops and for engineering purposes. Stainless Steel There are different types of stainless steel but all follow a certain type of composition. They contain a maximum of 0.15% carbon, 2% manganese, 1% silicon, 0.045% phosphorus, 0.03% sulphur, 8- 14% nickel and 12-20% Chromium. The key to stainless steel being water resistant and rust resistant is the chromium in its composition. The chromium reacts with the oxygen in the atmosphere creating a thin layer of chromium contain oxygen that preventing oxygen getting to the surface of the steel and so causing rust. The result of this stainless property is that stainless steel can be used to make medical instruments that need to be sterilised Stainless steel is used wherever metal may need to come in contact with air or water. Kitchen sinks are made of stainless steel, window frames; banisters for stairs are made of stainless steel, fridge doors and in many other areas of farming and industry. Stainless steel has a wide variety of uses. Alloy Steel Alloy steels have specific compositions depending on their use. They contain carbon as well as other elements like vanadium and molybdenum. There is still large amounts of Manganese, silicon and copper in the alloy. Alloy steels are used in axles, vehicle gears, rollers and carving knives. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Aqueous Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Aqueous Chemistry essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    The Haber Process

    3 star(s)

    Table of Results Table 1 - 350�c Pressure Percentage % Yield Mass of NH3 100 32 10.88 200 52 17.68 300 60 20.4 400 65 22.1 Table 2 - 400�c Pressure Percentage % Yield Mass of NH3 100 24 8.16 200 38 12.92 300 45 15.3 400 50 17 Table

  2. Investigation of the oxidation states of vanadium

    However, Cu2+ is blue in color. There may be reaction that reduction of VO2+ to V3+ which is green in color. VO2++ 2H+ + e- � V3+ + H2O +0.340V Cu2+ + 2e- � Cu +0.337V Although the reduction potentials of above two reactions have very small difference, some VO2+ may reduce to V3+.

  1. Colorimetric Determination of Manganese in Steel

    A dropper was used to fill up to the graduation mark with deioinised water. The flask was stoppered and inverted several times to make sure the solution was completely mixed. The spectrophotometer was set at a 520nm wavelength and zeroed with deionised water before being used to measure the absorbance of the solution in the flask.

  2. Determining the purity of Iron Wool.

    An error is more likely to occur during the procedure of the experiment. A viable reason could have been during the heating of the iron wool and Sulphuric acid. The procedure called for full dissolution of the two by heating on a hot plate, if this didn't occur and remnants

  1. How much Iron (II) in 100 grams of Spinach Oleracea?

    Saturated Potassium Nitrate (aq) was used for the salt bridge rather than a piece of wire to avoid further metal/ion potentials in the circuit. It was also chosen because it did not react with either of the solutions in the half-cells.

  2. Colorimetric Determination of Manganese in Steel

    Phosphoric acid (approx 5ml of 85%) was added while stirring and then potassium persulphate (approximately 0.2g) was added. To this solution (20ml of 2M) nitric acid containing potassium periodate (approx 1g) was added and the mixture was gently brought to boiling.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work