• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Manufacture of nitric acid

Extracts from this document...


Manufacture of nitric acid Overview: The manufacture of nitric acid is a three-stage process each having distinct reaction: a) Ammonia oxidation 4NH3 + 5O2 4NO + 6H2O ?H = - 900 kJmol-1 b) Nitric oxide oxidation 2NO + O2 2NO2 ?H = - 115 kJmol-1 2NO2 N2O4 ?H = - 58 kJmol-1 c) Dinitrogen tetroxide absorption 3N2O4 + 2H2O 4HNO3 + 2NO ?H = - 103 kJmol-1 Industrial Production of Nitric Acid Nitric acid is produced by 2 methods. 1. The first method involves oxidation, condensation, and absorption and yields a weak nitric acid with concentrations ranging from 30 to 70 percent nitric acid. 2. The second method combines dehydrating, bleaching, condensing, and absorption and produces a high-strength nitric acid from a weak nitric acid. High-strength nitric acid contains more than 90 percent nitric acid. Weak Nitric Acid Production This is done by the high-temperature catalytic oxidation of ammonia as shown in Figure. ...read more.


Both liquids flow countercurrent to the nitrogen dioxide/dimer gas mixture. Oxidation takes place in the free space between the trays, while absorption occurs on the trays. The exothermic reaction occurs as follows: 3N2O4 + 2H2O 4HNO3 + 2NO ?H = - 103 kJmol-1 A secondary air stream is introduced into the column to re-oxidize the NO that is formed in Reaction. This secondary air also removes NO from the product acid. This results in yield of 30 to 70 percent nitric acid, which depend upon factors such as temperature, pressure, number of absorption stages, and concentration of nitrogen oxides entering the absorber. High-Strength Nitric Acid Production: * A high-strength nitric acid (98 to 99 percent concentration) can be obtained by concentrating the weak nitric acid using extractive distillation. The distillation process is carried out in the presence of a dehydrating agent (Concentrated sulfuric acid 60 %). * The nitric acid concentration process consists of feeding strong sulfuric acid and 55 to 65 percent nitric acid to the top of a packed dehydrating column at atmospheric pressure. ...read more.


* Repeated exposure to high levels produces adverse effects on lung and teeth. * Nitric acid is harmful to aquatic life. Critical Evaluation of the manufacturing process: Large-scale manufacturing involves various issues such as cost and economies, safety and environmental issues. The environmental impact of the process and the byproducts has to be weighed carefully and newer more environmental friendly processes have to be designed. Running the process at optimum temperature and pressure using an appropriate catalyst can bring down the cost of the manufacturing. This is evident from both Haber process as well as for the synthesis of Nitric acid. It is important that emission levels are checked under permissible limits for any chemical process. Various products and by products shall be handled carefully with adequate safety measures adopted while manufacturing as well as during transport and storage. The benefits of Haber process and Manufacturing process of nitric acid far outweigh the hazards and therefore must be continued, however new research should be carried out to make the process as smooth, easy, economic and hazard free as possible. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Aqueous Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Aqueous Chemistry essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    The Haber Process

    3 star(s)

    Table of Results Table 1 - 350�c Pressure Percentage % Yield Mass of NH3 100 32 10.88 200 52 17.68 300 60 20.4 400 65 22.1 Table 2 - 400�c Pressure Percentage % Yield Mass of NH3 100 24 8.16 200 38 12.92 300 45 15.3 400 50 17 Table

  2. Ammonia - The Structure of Ammonia.

    For example, bromoethane forms ethylamine: CH3CH2Br + 2NH3 � CH3CH2NH2 + NH4Br Mechanism: H CH3CH2-Br � CH3CH2-N+-H H3N: H + :Br- H H CH3CH2- N+- H � CH3CH2-N+-H H H3N: + NH4+ The excess of ammonia minimises the chance of further reaction of the primary amines to form secondary or tertiary amines, or quaternary ammonium salts.

  1. Determination of the proportion of nitrogen in a fertiliser.

    Uncertainty: 0.2130690429 + 0.12 + 0.048 + 0.24 = 0.6210690429 0.6210690429 x (Percentage of nitrogen in a fertilizer) 100 Calculations: NH4+ + OH- NH3 + H2O As we know, one mole of NaOH releases 1 mole of NH3 gas and 1 mole of ammonia gas contains 1 mole of nitrogen atoms (14.01g).

  2. The Properties of Nitric Acid.

    To practically demonstrate the acid base, redox reactions of HNO2 the following reagents were used based on factors concerned with cost, availability and the nature of their reactions. 1 Reagents: Acidic reactions Magnesium solid Sodium hydroxide solution Sodium Carbonate solid Reduction reactions Bromine water Pottasuim manganate (VII)

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work