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Measure the effect of concentration on the rate of reaction.

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Introduction

Rates of reaction Aim: To measure the effect of concentration on the rate of reaction. Introduction: The rate of a chemical reaction is a measure of how fast the reaction takes place. A rapid reaction is completed in a short time. Some reactions are very fast for example, the formation of silver chloride precipitate, when silver nitrate and hydrochloric acid solutions are mixed. Other reactions are very slow for example the rusting of iron. There are 6 factors that can change the rate of reaction theses include, Concentration of a solution, temperature, surface area of a solid, pressure of a gas, light and a catalyst. When increasing the concentration of the reactant, the rate of reaction will increase. If Sodium Thiosulphate is added to Hydrochloric acid the following reaction will take place: Sodium Thiosulphate + Hydrochloric acid Sodium Chloride + Sulphur Dioxide + Water + Sulphur = Nas2O3 + HCI NaCI + SO2 + H2O + SO The more concentration means that there are more particles of acid, moving through fewer particles of water. This means that there are more chances of some particles colliding with particles of another in a concentrated solution. After a while, many of the particles have reacted and change. Increasing the temperature will increase the rate of reaction. By warming a chemical it transfers Kinetic energy to the chemicals particles. ...read more.

Middle

So the more effective collisions there will be. I also predict this, as from my trail experiment it shows that as the more amount of Hydrochloric acid, was added to the Sodium Thiosulphate, the less time it took for the reaction to react. The graph shows the trial results from the trail run. Diagram Apparatus 1 Beaker, 1 measuring cylinder, 240ml Sodium Thiosulphate, 0.5m, 1m, 1.5m, and 2m of Hydrochloric acid, stopwatch, a piece of paper marked with a cross, and goggles. Method 1. We marked an X on a piece of paper, and placed it under the beaker. 2. We then measured 20ml of Sodium Thiosulphate with the measuring cylinder, and added this to the beaker. 3. Afterwards we then started adding 2 drops of Hydrochloric acid into the beaker, starting with 0.5m of Hydrochloric acid. 4. When all the Hydrochloric acid was added we timed how long it took for the X to disappear. 5. We then continued testing it with 8 drops then 10 drops, for all four of the Hydrochloric acids (0.5m, 1m, 1.5m, and 2m). Using s new solution of Sodium Thiosulphate each time. We only took 3 readings for each Hydrochloric acid, and didn't repeat any readings. Safety For this experiment goggles will have to be worn, to protect the eyes from the chemicals used. ...read more.

Conclusion

As I can't get a very accurate reading for the time it for the X to disappear, with just one reading. By repeating reading and working out averages, I would get a clearer picture of how long it would take for the reaction to happen. I could also improve measuring the rate of reaction, by doing a different and more accurate experiment. This experiment would be more accurate than the 'Disappearing X' experiment. The following reaction can be followed by measuring the gas evolved under a period of time, the diagram below shows how the experiment would be set out. It shows a reaction between Magnesium and Hydrochloric Acid. The following reaction would take place: Magnesium + Hydrochloric acid Magnesium Chloride + Hydrogen = Mg + 2HCI MgCI2 + H2 The Cornical flask contains Hydrochloric acid with Magnesium ribbon in it. The Hydrochloric acid would contain a particular amount of acid in it (0.5m, 1m, 1.5m, etc). When the Magnesium ribbon is put into the acid the volume of gas would be measured every 15 seconds, until it had stopped reacting. The amount of Hydrochloric acid that would be used would include 0.5m, 1m, 1.5m, and 2m. This experiment is more reliable and more accurate than the 'Disappearing X' experiment. Overall, I do think my evidence is quite reliable as my results show what I thought they would. Also my experiment went quite well, as I had proved what I had set out to do, which was to prove that concentration does affect the rate of concentration. ...read more.

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