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Measure the rate of reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid.

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Introduction

Chemistry coursework Plan: In my experiment I will measure the rate of reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid. The rate of the reaction is the speed that the reaction takes place so by measuring the rate I will measure the amount of time the reaction takes. Hydrochloric acid is a strong acid that is found in digestive juices in the stomach, it is also used for cleaning metals before they are coated. Calcium carbonate has a few forms including chalk and limestone the main use of these two materials is in the making of concrete, which is used for many things such as buildings. When you put calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid together they react to form calcium chloride, carbon dioxide and water. Hydrochloric acid + calcium carbonate calcium chloride + carbon dioxide + water. HCl(aq) + CaCO3(s) CaCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) Things that affect the reaction rate of this experiment are: 1. The temperature of the hydrochloric acid. 2. The amount of hydrochloric acid. 3. The concentration of the hydrochloric acid. 4. The surface area of the calcium carbonate. 5. The amount of calcium carbonate. 6. The form of calcium carbonate. (It is available in three forms powder, small stones or large stones) ...read more.

Middle

syringe so I realised that when I repeated the experiment at 60 degrees according to my prediction even more gas will be produced form the reaction. Therefore I made the following changes to my method: 1. I will use 40cm3 of hydrochloric acid instead of 50cm3. 2. I will use 1gram of calcium carbonate instead of 3grams. This is what my final method looks like: * I will measure out 40cm� of 1 molar Hydrochloric Acid and pour this into a small beaker. * I will set up the clamp stand and gas syringe. * I will heat the hydrochloric acid to 30 degrees. * I will weigh out 1g of Calcium Carbonate powder on very accurate electronic scales. * I will tip the calcium carbonate into the beaker of acid. * I will quickly attach the syringe to the beaker of solution. * I will note down in my table how much gas is in the syringe every 20 seconds for 120 seconds. * I will repeat this all again. * I will use the same method with the hydrochloric acid being room temperature (22 degrees), 40, 50 and 60 degrees. As I have made these changes to my method I have to change my apparatus, as I will no only need 400cm3 of hydrochloric acid instead of 500cm3, I will also only need 10g of calcium carbonate instead of 30g. ...read more.

Conclusion

matched my prediction and I did not really have any anomalous results I think my results were accurate because I carried out my experiment with care repeating the experiment twice and measuring out my substances carefully and accurately. The one major problem with my experiment was that I did not continue to measure the amount of gas produced for enough time so I could not see that all the lines in my graph would level of and meet at the same place I could solve this easily by repeating the experiment and taking reading every twenty seconds for longer than I did for about five minutes instead of the previous two. To improve the reliability of my evidence I could have taken readings more often for example every ten seconds for a longer amount of time such as five minutes. I could also have repeated the experiment three or four times at each temperature and done the experiment at more different temperatures. I think that the evidence I got was quite reliable and was as reliable as it could be in the amount of time given. To extend my investigation I could do the same experiment at but using a different variable such as changing the concentration or the amount of calcium carbonate. I could also repeat the experiment using different catalysts. Ben Wilkinson 11PA. ...read more.

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