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Mitochondria, Chloroplasts, and Protein Synthesis

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Jigsaw Synthesis: Mitochondria, Chloroplasts, and Protein Synthesis The knowledge we have on cells and processes in the cell today are very vast. It may not be perfect, but we are making more and more advances and understanding more about these processes. We gain this knowledge by studying inside the cells; the structures and reactions in these processes help us make more conclusions, and broaden our knowledge on how the cell works. You may wonder how we can get a deeper understanding of how these processes occur and organelles function successfully just from the structures and properties of matter. In protein synthesis, the main cellular structures that carry out the process are the DNA, RNA, and the ribosomes floating in the cytoplasm. There are two steps that take place in protein synthesis, transcription and translation; both require proper cellular structures. The structure plays an important part in transcription because the DNA has to be the right size, and have the right nucleotides in order for the mRNA to connect to get the right information and make the right amino acids and proteins that enable us to survive. ...read more.


As you can see, both cellular structures and properties of matter play a role in the chance and success of protein synthesis. The structure of chloroplasts also plays a role in the processes that occur inside, such as protein synthesis. The structures of the inner and outer membranes are important because it regulates the passage of small molecules, such as sugar that pass in and out of the chloroplast that can be used for energy. Also, the structure of the thylakoids is a special one specifically made for the capturing of sunlight. The thylakoids are arranged in stacks called grana, making the surface area to volume ratio very high, thus having a greater chance of photosynthesis occurring and more energy being made for the plant. Also like the thylakoids, the entire chloroplast itself has a high surface area to volume ratio, and we can safely assume that the structure of the chloroplast plays a big role in its use and the success of photosynthesis. ...read more.


Many chemical reactions occur in the mitochondria in order to make ATP, and energy for the cell. Two main processes that occur for the creation of ATP are anaerobic metabolism, in which glcolysis converts glucose into pyruvate but only creates four ATP per glucose molecule, and aerobic metabolism, in which the pyruvate gets oxidized through Kreb's cycle, and then produces 36 ATP molecules per glucose molecule. Concentration also plays a role in the successfulness of the mitochondria. If there is a greater concentration of matrix (larger amount), then there will be a greater area for the ATP and energy to be produced, thus meaning more energy production. We can safely assume now that both cellular structure and properties of matter contribute to the success of the mitochondria and its role. As I stated earlier, we are expanding our knowledge on how cells, and processes in cells work. I think that studying both the cellular structure, and basic properties of matter of a certain organelle or process can teach us much more about the way it works. ...read more.

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