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Movement in Plants and Animals.

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Introduction

MOVEMENT IN PLANTS AND ANIMALS Movement is a characteristic of all living organism. It is a reaction to the external/ environmental stimuli and it may involve part of the organism or the entire organism, as n most animals. The direction of the stimulus determines the direction of the response. Locomotion is the movement of the entire organism from one place to another. Part movement in plants is as a result of growth as a response to various stimuli. For example, plants will grow towards light and their root will grow towards water. Growth responses are usually slow and are not reversible. Movements in animals, is usually faster than growth movement in plants. Like growth movement, they take place in response to a stimulus, but unlike growth movement, they are reversible. The organism, or its part, can return to its original position when the stimulus is removed. Movement is important for the survival of all organisms. In animals, locomotion is important for the following reasons: 1. Finding food Animals, unlike plants, cannot make their own food and so they have to go in search of food. ...read more.

Middle

Movement towards a stimulus is a positive response; movement away from a stimulus is a negative response. If the stimulus is applied from one direction the response is usually in one definite direction; away from or toward the direction of the stimulus. The stimulus is received by the tip of the shoot or root and growth response takes place just behind the tip. For example, plant shoots will grow towards a light source. Plant hormones, called auxins, are made at the tip of roots and shoots. They diffuse downwards and away from the light source. The cells in the region where they accumulate grow faster than other cells causing bending in that region. Different parts of the same plant may respond differently to the same stimulus. Shoots respond positively to light; roots respond negatively. This is important because light is essential for photosynthesis, the process by which green plants manufacture food. Light is also essential for chlorophyll formation. Roots respond positively to the downward force of gravity; shoots respond negatively. This response ensures that the roots become firmly anchored in the soil and is able to obtain water and nutrients. ...read more.

Conclusion

The Appendicular Skeleton The pectoral girdle consists of two clavicles (collar bone) and two scapulas (shoulder blades). The pelvic girdle consists of two hip bones; each made up of three bones tightly joined together to form a bowl. The functions of a skeleton The skeleton performs several functions. These include: Protection Some soft tissues are protected by the skeleton. The skull protects the brain, inner and middle ears, nasal organs and the eyes. The heart and lungs are protected by the rib cage and the spinal cord is protected by the vertebral column. The reproductive organs in females are protected by the pelvic girdle. Support The skeleton forms a rigid framework which maintains body shape. The limb supports the body above the ground. Movement and locomotion The bones provide points of attachment fro muscles and the bones act as levers and joints as pivots; when muscles contract, movement occurs. Blood formation Blood is produced in the red bone marrow. In children, red bone marrow is found in almost all bones; in adults, marrow in the shaft of long bones become inactive; blood formation is restricted to areas like the skull, ribs, sternum (breast bone) and vertebrae. ...read more.

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