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My aim for this experiment is to discover how varying the concentration of hydrochloric acid (HCl) affects the decomposition of marble chips (calcium carbonate).The equation for this reaction is: CaCO3+2HCl CaCl2 +H2O+CO2

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Introduction

My aim for this experiment is to discover how varying the concentration of hydrochloric acid (HCl) affects the decomposition of marble chips (calcium carbonate). The equation for this reaction is: CaCO3+2HCl CaCl2 +H2O+CO2 Background knowledge ( Found via the internet and 'Key Science Chemistry' by Eileen Ramsden) What is limestone? Limestone and chalk are sedimentary rocks with their main compound being calcium carbonate. Limestone is mainly found underneath the sea as it is formed by the skeletons and shells of tiny sea animals compressed under many layers of other materials. We are being supplied with marble chips instead of limestone. This is because acid rain will wear away limestone for many years, and we haven't got that much time, so that is why we are using marble chips instead. This will not affect the reaction as marble is of the same composition as limestone and chalk, calcium carbonate (CaCO3) but because of high temperatures and pressures has been turned into a metaphoric rock. What is weathering? There are many types of weathering: Chemical weathering, physical weathering which includes (wind abrasion and ice). However only chemical weathering- acid rain will be used in this experiment. Acid rain (Chemical weathering) therefore, Acid + carbonate salt + CO2+ H2O Acid Rain Acid rain is caused by pollutants and chemicals released into the atmosphere. The rainwater is already naturally acidic because of the carbon dioxide dissolved in it, however sulphur dioxide given out by car exhausts and power stations, meet with the air to make sulphur trioxide. ...read more.

Middle

* The experiment will be kept in the surroundings where the temperature is constant and alike. Once each experiment has finished, I will ensure that I pause the stop watch immediately. To make certain that the results I produce will be both reliable and precise; the experiment will be repeated twice. Averages will then be calculated. Risk assessment Safety is an important factor in any experiment. * Hydrochloric acid is irritant and if used incorrectly can cause accidents. * Goggles and overall will be worn throughout the experiments. * Once an experiment is completed, good care should be taken to release the bung from the conical flask, more importantly, pour the remaining acid into an appropriate place. Preliminary Experiment- Apparatus used: -Hydrochloric Acid (25cm�) -Small marble chips (approximately 1.00g- nearest 0.01g) -Electronic scales -Conical Flask -Gas syringe -Bung -A stop Watch -Plastic boat (carry marble chips) -Clamp and Bolt -Measuring Cylinder -Beaker -Bench mat Method To carry out the experiment we used a gas syringe and timed how long it took for the syringe to be filled. The volume of the syringe was one hundred cm�. We reacted both of the reagents in a conical flask and measured the mass of the chips on a electronic balance to get a fairly accurate reading. Why did we carry out the preliminary experiment? This preliminary experiment was carried out to find the mass of chips to use, and this experiment was also used to test the range of concentration to use in the experiment. ...read more.

Conclusion

This is because when there are more hydrochloric acid molecules present, there would be more of a chance that a collision will take place. Therefore the probability of the particles colliding would double. Method for the REAL EXPERIMENT. * Firstly, we set up the experiment using the above apparatus as shown below. * Before we start the experiment, we will draw out a simple table in which we will then record the results on. * We will pour 25cm� of 2M hydrochloric acid, using the method of titration, and we will measure out the amounts of 1.00 M, 1.25 M, 1.50 M, and 1.75 M into a conical flask. * We will get the stop watch ready and place the small marble chips into the conical flask and put the bung on top to trap the CO2, and immediately we will start the stop watch. * Every 10 seconds, we will record the mass of marble chips and note them down. As we knew the masses of marble chips, we will be able to in turn work out the mass of CO2 lost. * We will carry out this procedure until the time had reached 100 cm3 of CO2. * Once the experiment will be complete we will switch off the stop watch, release the bung from the conical flask and pour the remaining excess hydrochloric acid into a round basin. * We will then plot a graph of our results, with the Time (seconds) on the x axis and loss in mass of CO2 on the y axis. * This procedure will be repeated again for all the concentrations of hydrochloric acid. 1 ...read more.

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