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My aim is to investigate the effect of different amounts of a full body exercise (star jumps), on the pulse rate.

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Introduction

The Effect of Exercise on the Pulse Rate Aim My aim is to investigate the effect of different amounts of a full body exercise (star jumps), on the pulse rate. Background Theory The heart is a four-chambered muscular organ, which pumps blood around the body. It is one of the most important organs in the body. The heart is made of special cardiac muscles, which continuously pump blood around our body for the whole of our lives. Blood enters via the vena cava, to the right atrium. It is passed to the right ventricle, through the tricuspid valve, and pumped to the pulmonary artery to the lungs. The blood is then oxygenated in the lungs and returns to the left ventricle from the pulmonary vein. It is passed into the left ventricle through the bicuspid valve and pumped to the rest of the body via the aorta. This is a double circulation because 2 laps of the body are done in each pump. This also keeps the blood pressure at a particular level. Figure 1 is a diagram of the heart. There are 3 main vessels in the circulatory system. These are the arteries, veins and capillaries. The artery is the vessel that takes blood away from the heart. It has a relatively thick wall compared to the veins and capillaries and is elastic to withstand pressure. It has a fairly narrow passage for the blood, but is able to expend, this is useful when a large volume of blood is pumped out of the heart. The flow of the blood in the arteries is fast and irregular with a high blood pressure. The veins are different. They carry blood towards the heart. They have fairly wide passages for the blood, with thin walls because they do not need to withstand any pressure. Veins also have valves, which keep the blood flowing in the same direction. ...read more.

Middle

These are 1 minute, 2 minute, 3 minute, 4 minute, 5 minute, 6 minute, 7 minute and 8 minute. I will do this experiment twice and will take the average of the two so that my results are more precise and reliable results. Apparatus * Stopwatch * Subject (myself) The stopwatch I decided to use was on a casio sports watch. I used myself as the subject so that I can personally record the pulse rate and the time of exercise that is done. This is for accuracy and reliability. Prediction I predict that the more exercise that is done, the higher the pulse rate difference between the resting rate and rate after the exercise. I predict this because as I have stated in my background theory, the factors which affect the heart rate (and pulse rate) are exercise, emotion and some sicknesses. Seeing as exercise is a factor, my prediction may be correct. I have planned my experiment around testing this theory. On the next page is a sketch of what I think the graph would look like. I predict this because at first the pulse rate will increase at a rapid rate, but towards the end, the heart will reach its optimum rate and the pulse rate will 'tail off' to a constant level. Fair Test Below is a list of variables, which may affect the experiment. * Type of exercise. * Amount of time exercise is done for. * Temperature of environment. * Health of subject (not ill). * Age * Resting time between exercise periods. The type of exercise, temperature of environment and health of subject will be kept constant. The type of exercise can affect the results because varying the exercise from a full body aerobic exercise to a simpler exercise will give a wide range of results. The temperature of the environment can also affect the results. At different temperatures the heart pumps blood at different rates to retain or lose heat for thermoregulation. ...read more.

Conclusion

These anomalous results may be caused by a number of things. Firstly, they may have occurred because one of my experiments was inaccurate and brought the averages too high. They may also be because my heart rate was not lowered to a low enough value close to my resting heart rate. My tables show that there is a sudden jump from 78bpm resting rate, to 80bpm resting heart rate, this shows that my theory that my heart rate wasn't lowered enough was correct. I think my results are not good enough to support a firm conclusion. I think this because my results are not very accurate towards the end and I can not be certain that the end will actually be like the one in my results graph. The experiment was only carried out three times. If it was carried out more, it may have given more reliable results and can be used to give a firm conclusion. One way of improving my experiment would be to use a heart monitor to calculate the heart rates rather than a human doing it. This will be more accurate as it will remove human error, and can give more accurate values. Below is a plan of how an experiment with a heart monitor instead of a human can be carried out. * Get stopwatch and reset to zero. * Using heart monitor, record and note resting pulse rate. * Reset stopwatch. * Begin doing the exercise, start the stopwatch when exercise started. * Do exercise for the time needed. * Immediately after stopping exercise, record pulse rate for 60 seconds using the heart monitor. * Note beats per minute in table. * Rest until pulse rate is at same level or as close to as possible, to the resting pulse. This can be done by using the heart monitor. * Reset stopwatch to zero, ready for next exercise. This plan will give more accurate and reliable results, with less human error involved. It can be used as an extension experiment. ...read more.

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