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My aim is to investigate the rate of energy loss in different types of cups by thermal radiation.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Planning

Aim:

My aim is to investigate the rate of energy loss in different types of cups by thermal radiation.

Def: Radiation is a process when heat is sent from one place to another, by waves,

without heating the space in between.

Def: Conduction is when energy is passed from one vibrating atom to the next.

Def: Convection is what happens when hot liquids and gases expand and rise while the cool liquid or gas falls (a convection current).

Apparatus list:

  • 3polystyrene cups → one painted black (matt)

→ one plain white (matt)

→ one covered with aluminium foil (shiny)

  • hot water – caution! (3x  70ml)
  • cold water (3x  70ml)
  • a graduated measuring cylinder
  • a thermometer
  • a pen
  • a heatproof mat (for safety: HOT WATER!)
  • polystyrene lids - with holes in middle to insert thermometer (x3)
  • a stop-clock/watch

Prediction:

Dull, dark surfaces are good radiators (i.e. lose heat/energy more easily), but bright, shiny surfaces are poor radiators (i.e. store heat/energy more easily).

Therefore, part of my prediction is that the painted black matt polystyrene cup will lose the most heat or energy, as it is matt (dull) and black (dark); the polystyrene cup covered in aluminium foil will keep the most heat because it is silver (bright) and made of foil (shiny); whilst the plain white polystyrene cup will lose some heat, as it is matt (dull) but at the same time, it will be able to store some heat as well as it is white (bright). Metals are good conductors so the aluminium foil will help conduct heat, however, liquids are poor conductors (i.e.

...read more.

Middle

6

7

8

9

10

Painted black cup

1st  reading

2nd reading

87

94

84

90

82

88.5

80

87

79.5

85

77

84

76

82.5

75

81

74

81

73

78.5

72

77.5

Average

90.5

87

85.25

83.5

82.75

80.5

79.25

78

77

75.75

74.75

Cup with tin foil

1st  reading

2nd reading

87

94

85

93

83.5

90

82.5

88

81

86.5

79.5

85

78.5

85

77.5

83

76.5

81.5

75.5

80

74

79.5

Average

90.5

88.5

86.75

85.25

83.25

82.25

81.25

80.25

79

77.75

76.75

Dull white cup

1st   reading

2nd reading

87

94

85

92

84

89

83

87

81

85

80

84

79

83.5

77

83

76

82

75

81

73.5

80

Average

90.5

88.5

86.5

85

83

82

81.5

80

79

78

76.75

(All of the above results are in degrees Celsius.)

Average of range: 90.5 C

Range of starting temperature for 1st and 2nd readings: 7 C

Graph(s):

See graph paper.

Observing:  

I have noticed, from the graphs (see graph paper)

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Conclusion

is alteredby properties of the different surfaces onvarious containers. My results do have a poor range (7 C) but I think that effectively this only affects the visibility of change on the graph, not the reliability of my results, as I have not found any problems analysing them.

I cannot see points, which are way away from the line of best fit. Obviously there are some, which are slightly off the line, but none are of a noticeable distance away. This leads me to believe that my results do have a good level of reliability.

As I explained in my conclusion my results and experiment sums up an excellent outcome from the aim (‘to investigate the rate of energy loss in different types of cups by thermal radiation’) which is basically that good radiators have properties like dull/matt, dark and so on and poor radiators have properties such as shiny, bright, for example. My results were good enough for me to be able to plot them on the graph, though. I believe my results have been good enough for me to draw a strong conclusion, as I have been able to justify and back up my conclusion with evidence, scientific facts and results.

I think improvements such as better room conditions and a better range in my results would be good for other such experiments and repeats. Also, repeats could help me draw a better conclusion and a graph, which has a better quality of readability, and could also help me average my results.

The evidence, although at points hard to read (on the graph) showed a pattern, which makes me confident the experiment, was a success: the better radiator, the quicker the liquid (water) cools down.

...read more.

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