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My aim is to see that if I change the concentration of Hydrochloric acid for each experiment I will see an increase or a decrease in the rate of reaction between the Hydrochloric acid and magnesium ribbon.

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Introduction

AIM My aim is to see that if I change the concentration of Hydrochloric acid for each experiment I will see an increase or a decrease in the rate of reaction between the Hydrochloric acid and magnesium ribbon. Prediction My prediction is that the higher the concentration of the acid then the higher the rate of the reaction will be. I am stating this because of collision theory (see introduction). * The higher the concentration of acid, then the higher the number of acid particles present per 10cm� of acid. This means that there should be more collisions per second, which means there should be more successful collisions per second, so the rate of reaction should increase. If I double the concentration of acid from 1 molar hydrochloric acid to 2 molar hydrochloric acid then I should expect to see the rate of reaction double. This is because there are twice as many acid particles in 2 molar hydrochloric acid than 1 molar of hydrochloric acid, so there should be twice the amount of collisions per second and because there are twice the amount of collisions per second then there should be twice as many successful collisions per second, which should result in an increase in the rate of reaction. Plan * I intend to react 2 cm lengths of magnesium ribbon with 10cm� of Hydrochloric acid of varying concentration. * I will measure the rate of reaction by timing the experiment from when I drop the magnesium in to the boiling tube with the hydrochloric acid. Observing the magnesium until it has completely dissolved. I am also going to shake the boiling tube. ...read more.

Middle

1) Temperature of the Hydrochloric acid. Why rate changes with temperature? If the temperature of the acid is different each time the reaction will not be fair. At low temperature the particles do not have much energy. When Substances are given heat the particles take in energy. When energy is given to particles they move faster and collide more often. This will give a successful collision. The rate of reaction increases and is faster. Low Temp High Temp Acid Magnesium 2) Type of acid used If I change the type of acid then the rate of reaction would change. Hydrochloric, Sulphuric and Nitric acid would all produce a different rate of reaction, so if I do change the type of acid then all three kinds would produce a different set of results. 3) Concentration of the Hydrochloric acid The more concentrated the reactants, the grater the rate of reaction will be, because the higher the concentration of acid then the more acid particles per 10cm� so more collisions per second there for there will be more successful collisions per second. More acid less acid Acid Water 4) Boiling tube shaken or not shaken. Shaking the Boiling tube whilst the reaction is taking place can alter the rate of reaction because when the reaction is taking place there is already collisions taking place in the Boiling tube. When the particles gain kinetic energy by movement this helps to make the reaction faster. Shaken Not Shaken Acid Magnesium 5) Presence of catalyst. A catalyst is a substance, which can alter the rate of reaction, but remains chemically unchanged itself at the end of the reaction. Catalysts usually speed up the reaction. ...read more.

Conclusion

I decided that it would be impractical to spend time on the low concentrated of hydrochloric acid. I furthermore learnt from my preliminary work that it was sometimes quite difficult to stop timing on the exact moment that the magnesium had dissolved. I decided therefore that I would carry out each experiments three times and find the average time as this would result in more accurate figure. When magnesium reacts with hydrochloric acid, magnesium chloride is formed. I wrote down the equation to show this: Magnesium + Hydrochloric acid = Magnesium chloride +Hydrogen Mg + 2HCl {r} MgCl2 + H2 The equipment I needed for the experiment were: * Stop watch * Water * Hydrochloric Acid 2moler * Magnesium ribbon (2 cm) * Test tube rack * Boiling tube * Ruler * Scissors * Measuring cylinder * Goggles I decided to do the experiment, three times each, using all the information that I gained while I was doing my preliminary experiment. Results Concentration of acid Volume of acid Volume of water Experiment (Time in seconds) 1 2 3 Average (Time in seconds) Rate 1/t 02 molar 10 cm� 0 cm� 15 15 14 14.7 0.68 09 cm� 01 cm� 17 18 19 18 0.56 08 cm� 02 cm� 21 23 24 22.7 0.44 07 cm� 03 cm� 26 25 27 26 0.38 06 cm� 04 cm� 39 40 38 39 0.26 01 molar 05 cm� 05 cm� 57 59 56 57.3 0.17 04 cm� 06 cm� 70 66 69 68.3 0.15 03 cm� 07 cm� 210 225 223 219.3 0.05 02 cm� 08 cm� 532 529 540 533.7 0.02 01 cm� 09 cm� 1178 1180 1195 1184.3 8.4x00-4 0 molar 0 cm� 10 cm� ------ ------ ----- ---------- ----- ...read more.

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